Original of this document is available at


Jump straight to :

Qmail-Scanner / Clam AntiVirus / SpamAssassin
Tips %26amp; Misc Notes
Some example web-based domain/mailbox navigation scripts


I would recommend you first learn qmail via, then learn about vpopmail toasters using Bill Shupp's Linux Qmail Toaster notes.

Jeremy Oddo has also written another good qmail toaster page.

Once you have a good grip on all those concepts, come back and read this doc to learn how you can add MySQL back-ends to vpopmail and SquirrelMail :-)


By having all the vpopmail account data stored it MySQL, it allows you to easily write web based tools (eg in asp or PHP) that can talk to the database and then present easy-to-use interface for your support staff to manage the user accounts. I have included some more info and examples on this subject at the bottom of this doc

You can easily add additional columns to the vpopmail tables to store other "per-user" information without affecting the Operation of vpopmail

For a server with many user accounts, you would expect that MySQL would give faster performance than disk based accounts. Particularly when you have a large number of users in a given domain. (I haven't personally done any benchmarks on this, and I also have never seen anyone else run such a test, but you would have to expect that a SQL based backend would scale better than the file-based cdb backend that qmail/vpopmail uses by default)

If you have a very large number of accounts, vpopmail can be configured to use MySQL replication and NFS to share the load over over multiple servers


I have successfully used these notes to build many Redhat 7.2, 7.3 and 8.0 based servers.

People have told me that Redhat 9.0 %26amp; Fedora will also work, but you have to be aware of a few issues :

Most of the qmail software and associated utilities will not compile under RH9 or Fedora, due to conflicts with its new version of glibc. You can get patches to solve these problems from (Do a search for "errno")
For packages using perl (eg Razor, SpamAssassin), you may need to add an "export LANG=en_US" to your scripts, or alternatively modify the "/etc/sysconfig/i18n" file.
All the commands shown below have been run as root.

Follow these notes at your own risk...!


REDHAT 7.2 / 7.3 / 8.0 NOTES

The ipchains or iptables firewalling software will usually be installed during Redhat's installation process.

For this server you will need to make sure you have opened access on at least the following ports :

Note that we arent going to open the IMAP:TCP port, as we are not offering IMAP services directly to our clients. We will be running an IMAP server, but the only program talking to it will be the SquirrelMail software which is also running on this same box.

On Redhat 7.2 / 7.3 (which uses ipchains by default)

You can examine/modify the ipchains config by working on the file :

If you make any changes to this file, you will need to restart the ipchains software :

/etc/rc.d/init.d/ipchains restart
On Redhat 8.0 (which uses iptables by default)

You can examine/modify the iptables config by working on the file :

If you make any changes to this file, you will need to restart the iptables software :

/etc/rc.d/init.d/iptables restart

Mail servers need to have their clocks set correctly. If you don't have their time sync'ed, you can experience strange problems.

Redhat comes with the ntpd package which is easy to setup

vi /etc/ntp.conf
look for the "# --- OUR TIMESERVERS -----" section
and then put in the following lines :

restrict mask nomodify notrap noquery
where is the IP address of your (or your upstream's) NTP server

After making the changes, you will need to restart the ntpd service :

/etc/rc.d/init.d/ntpd restart
Use the ntsysv program and make sure the ntpd service is enabled at bootup time


For our example, we setup an A record for Any domains that we are hosting mail for should have their primary MX pointing to this host. We also created the following CNAME aliases for this host : pop3, smtp, webmail

This allows our users to :

access SquirrelMail and qmailadmin via
set their POP3 clients to for their incoming mail, and for their outgoing mail
IMPORTANT : Never configure a end-user's software to reference the hostname directly. Even though you might start out with just a single box doing all your email functions, later on you might add other boxes to split the load onto different machines (eg one to handle all the SMTP mail, the other doing POP3/IMAP and another again doing WebMail). By setting your client to use the aliased names, you can add extra boxes and then just update the DNS as appropriate. No changes will be required on the client's computer. Make sure you take my advice now on this matter. You will thank me for this later!! :-)


RedHat regularly publishes updated versions of the Linux kernel to suit their various RedHat distributions. To ensure that your server has best performance and reliability, it is a good idea to regularly upgrade to the latest available kernel.

RedHat have got some easy-to-follow instructions online :

RedHat 7.2 kernel upgrade guide
RedHat 7.3 kernel upgrade guide
RedHat 8.0 kernel upgrade guide



We will be using MySQL to store all the domain and mailbox account information for vpopmail. We are also going to use MySQL to store the SquirrelMail user preferences and address books

Setup an account for the MySQL server to run under :

groupadd mysql
useradd -g mysql mysql
Go to their website and download the latest binaries to /usr/local/src. In this example I have used the file:

(Note, MySQL v4 has recently been released as "stable", however I am yet to do any testing under this new version. I would recommend that you stay with v3.23 until the v4 series is more mature)

Unzip / configure the binaries so they get installed to /usr/local/mysql

cd /usr/local
tar xzf /usr/local/src/mysql-max-3.23.57-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz
ln -s mysql-max-3.23.57-pc-linux-i686 mysql
Run the installation script that creates/verifies all the various system-use tables etc

cd mysql
cd ..
Setup permissions on the MySQL dirs

chown -R root.mysql mysql-max-3.23.57-pc-linux-i686
chmod -R 640 mysql
chmod -R u+X,g+X mysql
chmod -R ug+x mysql/bin
chmod -R g+w mysql/data
chmod -R u+x mysql/scripts
Let the MySQL server know what amount of resources it is allowed to use

# choose an appropriate config file from the samples provided
cp /usr/local/mysql/support-files/my-medium.cnf /usr/local/mysql/data/my.cnf
# adjust the permissions on the file so that mysql daemon can read the contents
chgrp mysql /usr/local/mysql/data/my.cnf
Fire up the server

cd /usr/local/mysql
bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql %26amp;
At this point the mysql daemons should be running. A good way to verify this is to use this command :

ps axf
If all is well, you should be able to see something like this :

1073 ? S 0:00 /bin/sh ./bin/safe_mysqld --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data --pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/.pid
1117 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-extra-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/my.cnf --basedir=/usr/local/m
1125 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-extra-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/my.cnf --basedir=/usr/loc
1126 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-extra-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/my.cnf --basedir=/usr
1143 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-extra-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/my.cnf --basedir=/usr
1419 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-extra-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/my.cnf --basedir=/usr
1449 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-extra-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/my.cnf --basedir=/usr
1471 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-extra-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/my.cnf --basedir=/usr
(If you received errors, look in the file /usr/local/mysql/data/hostname.err for debugging info)

Next setup a passWord for the MySQL root user

/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'mysql-root-pwd'
Configure MySQL so it is running all the time from bootup onwards

cp /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql
chmod 744 /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql
chkconfig --add mysql
Then I like to use the ntsysv program to double-check that mysql is set to launch at boot time



This package is optional. It is required if you want your Apache software to have SSL support. We have used it because we want our WebMail interface to have SSL functionality for the login screens. If you don't want/need SSL support, you could skip this section

Go to their website and download the latest source to /usr/local/src. In this example I have used the file:

Compile source (installs to /usr/local/ssl)

cd /usr/local/src
tar xzf openssl-0.9.7b.tar.gz
chown -R root.root openssl-0.9.7b.tar.gz
cd openssl-0.9.7b
./config no-threads -fPIC
make install
Generate a private key (make a KEY file)

cd /usr/local/ssl
# generate an 1024-bit RSA private key
bin/openssl genrsa -out private/ 1024
# make sure the permissions on the private dir are tight
chown -R root.root private
chmod -R 600 private
chmod u+X private
Generate a certificate signing request (make a CSR file)

# fill in the X.509 prompts when they appear on the screen
# make sure you put the web site's name into the common name box eg
bin/openssl req -new -key private/ -out certs/
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:AU
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Your State
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Your City
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Your Company Pty Ltd
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Internet Services
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []
Email Address [][email protected]

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:yoursecretpasswd
An optional company name []:
Get the certificate signed (make a CRT file)

Get the certificate signed by one of the official signing authorities (eg Thawte) :

Send the file to a signing authority for processing...
When they have signed it, copy the signed certificate to /usr/local/ssl/certs/

Or alternately, here is how you can sign it yourself so you can do a bit of testing! :

openssl x509 -req -days 30 -in certs/ -out certs/ -signkey private/
A note for the future.... Eventually you will need to renew your certificate :

If you get your certificate signed by eg Thawte, then after the certificate period expires (typically 1 year), you will need to renew the certificate

If all the details for your server are still the same as on your original signing request, then you do not have to submit them a new CSR file. They can just ask them to "re-sign" your existing certificate with an updated expiry date. Before proceeding with your renewal request, make sure you still have a copy of your original private key, as the new certificate will require this file.

Alternatively, if any of the details for your server have changed, then you will need to apply for a new certificate. To do this just follow the original steps above that show how to create a certificate from scratch. (Thawte will still only bill you the cheaper renewal rates..)

Thawte will then send you an updated CRT, and all you do is save this over the top of your original CRT file (/usr/local/ssl/certs/, and then restart the apache server



Text with green background is only required if you are building in support for mod_ssl

Uninstall apache if it is installed already

rpm -e --nodeps apache
Go to their website and download the latest source to /usr/local/src. In this example I have used the file:

(Note, Apache v2 has recently been released as "stable", however I am yet to do any testing under this new version. I would recommend that you stay with v1.3 until the v2 series is more mature)

Extract the apache source

cd /usr/local/src
chown -R root.root apache_1.3.27.tar.gz
tar xzf apache_1.3.27.tar.gz
Create an account and group for the web server to run under

groupadd www
useradd -g www www
Merge in the mod_ssl source

mod_ssl provides SSL cryptography functionality for the Apache webserver

Go to their website and download the version of mod_ssl that matches your version of apache. Put the file into /usr/local/src. In this example I have used the file :

Extract the source :

cd /usr/local/src
tar xzf mod_ssl-2.8.14-1.3.27.tar.gz
chown -R root.root mod_ssl-2.8.14-1.3.27.tar.gz
cd mod_ssl-2.8.14-1.3.27
And now use the configure script to patch the apache source tree

./configure \
--with-apache=../apache_1.3.27 \
--with-crt=/usr/local/ssl/certs/ \
Compile the apache source

cd /usr/local/src
cd apache_1.3.27
SSL_BASE=../openssl-0.9.7b \
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/apache \
--enable-module=so \
--enable-module=rewrite \
--enable-shared=rewrite \
--enable-module=ssl \
--enable-shared=ssl \
--disable-rule=SSL_COMPAT \
--server-uid=www \
make install
Now add PHP scripting support

Go to their website and download the latest source to /usr/local/src. In this example I have used :

Extract the source

cd /usr/local/src
tar xzf php-4.3.2.tar.gz
chown -R root.root php-4.3.2.tar.gz
cd php-4.3.2
And now use the configure script to patch the Apache source tree

./configure \
--with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql \
make install
Put the sample php.ini file into the required location

cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/lib/php.ini
Modify the /usr/local/lib/php.ini file and make sure it contains the following commands

Tighten the security on PHP dir

# Since we have installed PHP as a module, it will run in our chosen "www" context.
# We will now tighten up the permissions on the php directory to allow only root and www users access
chown -R root.www /usr/local/lib/php
chmod -R g-w,o-rwx /usr/local/lib/php
Edit the /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf file

User www
Group www
ServerAdmin [email protected]
# Following line should be present already as it would be inserted by the PHP make
# Make sure you move it outside of the IfDefineSSL section if the make (incorrectly) put it there
LoadModule php4_module libexec/
# uncomment (or add) the following line
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
# Add the index.php into this line so apache will use this file as a default in addition to index.html
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html
# Go towards the end of the httpd.conf and look for the "SSL Virtual Host Context"
ServerAdmin [email protected]
Tidy up the default Apache contents dir

rm -Rf /usr/local/apache/htdocs/*
rm -f /usr/local/apache/index.html.*
Tidy up the default Apache cgi-bin dir

rm -Rf /usr/local/apache/cgi-bin/*
Setup permissions on the Apache dirs

cd /usr/local

# make root.root own the entire Apache tree
chown -R root.root apache

# setup permissions on the apachedir.
# Because it is owned by root.root, we need to make sure the world permissions bits
# allow rx so that the www group in particular can get access to the apacheroot
chmod 755 apache

# now set the rest of the apacheroot to only allow root to rw. Everything else blocked
# we will selectively go and open permissions as needed
chmod -R 600 apache/*

# give owner (root) search/access permissions on all directories in the apacheroot
chmod -R u+X apache

cd apache

# bin dir contains binaries, so grant execute permissions to owner (root)
chmod -R u+x bin

# cgi-bin contains binaries. Allow either owner (root), or group (web server (www)) to execute these
chgrp -R www cgi-bin
chmod -R u+x,g+x cgi-bin

# the web server needs read access the icons dir
chgrp -R www icons
chmod -R g+rX icons

# Web server log files can be written by the service processes
# but the log files cannot be read or served as web content.
# Web server log files can be read only by administration processes
chgrp -R www logs
chmod g+wX logs

# public web files needs to be able to be read, but not written to by the web service processes
# Also the directories where public web content is stored must not be writable by web services processes
# Also public web content files can be written only by processes authorised for web server admin (only root in our case)
chgrp -R www htdocs
chmod -R g+rX htdocs

mod_gzip is a module for Apache that allows you to compress outgoing content from an Apache web server on-the-fly. It uses the same compression as gzip and no plugins or extra software is needed by your browser to take advantage of this product. Reduction in size of up to 90% or more is possible.

Go to their website and download the latest source to /usr/local/src. In this example I have used :

Unpack the sources

cd /usr/local/src
tar xzf mod_gzip-
chown -R root.root mod_gzip-
cd mod_gzip-

APXS=/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs make
APXS=/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs make install
Setup the mod_gzip config in the Apache's httpd.conf file

vi /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf
# Add the following commands to the end of the httpd.conf file
LoadModule gzip_module libexec/

mod_gzip_on Yes
mod_gzip_temp_dir /tmp
mod_gzip_keep_workfiles No
mod_gzip_minimum_file_size 500
mod_gzip_maximum_file_size 5000000
mod_gzip_maximum_inmem_size 60000
mod_gzip_handle_methods GET
mod_gzip_item_include file "\.htm$"
mod_gzip_item_include file "\.html$"
mod_gzip_item_include file "\.txt$"
mod_gzip_item_include file "\.php$"

mod_gzip_item_include mime "text/*"
mod_gzip_item_include mime "httpd/unix-directory"
mod_gzip_item_include mime "application/x-httpd-php"

mod_gzip_item_exclude file "\.CSS$"
mod_gzip_item_exclude file "\.js$"
mod_gzip_item_exclude file "\.wml$"

mod_gzip_dechunk Yes

LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b mod_gzip: %{mod_gzip_compression_ratio}npct." common_with_mod_gzip_info1
# CustomLog /usr/local/apache/logs/mod_gzip common_with_mod_gzip_info1
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%V %r\" %>s %b mod_gzip: %{mod_gzip_result}n In:%{mod_gzip_input_size}n Out:%{mod_gzip_output_size}n:%{mod_gzip_compression_ratio}npct." common_with_mod_gzip_info2
CustomLog /usr/local/apache/logs/mod_gzip common_with_mod_gzip_info2
mod_gzip_add_header_count Yes


Test your httpd.conf for valid syntax

/usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl configtest
Start the Apache server

# if you are using SSL :

/usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl startssl
# if you aren't using SSL
/usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl start
At this point the apache daemon should be running. A good way to verify this is to use this command :

ps axf
If all is well, you should be able to see something like this :

1210 ? S 0:00 /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd -DSSL
1274 ? S 0:03 \_ /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd -DSSL
1275 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd -DSSL
1276 ? S 0:02 \_ /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd -DSSL
1277 ? S 0:03 \_ /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd -DSSL
1278 ? S 0:01 \_ /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd -DSSL
If you got Apache to startup OK, then add the appropriate apachectl line to /etc/rc.d/rc.local

(or even better yet we could put an appropriate script into /etc/rc.d/init.d/
I will have to get around to writing such a script one day soon )


I recommend that you follow the instruction guide at

However, if you really want to see how we normally do it, here are the steps :


cd /usr/local/src
tar xzf ucspi-tcp-0.88.tar.gz
chown -R root.root ucspi-tcp-0.88
cd ucspi-tcp-0.88
# Patch rblsmtpd so that it can be used with all the newer RBL zones.
# This patch also lets you specify a custom error message to be returned to the sender.
patch -p0 rblsmtpd.c < ../ucspi-rss.diff
# Modify rblsmtpd.c to increase the maximum size of the error text that is allowed
# to be returned to the sender from 200 to 500 chars.
# This allows you to create some nice and descriptive text to send to people who
# are being blocked by your RBL filters
vi rblsmtpd.c
go to line 166 and change it from

if (text.len > 200) text.len = 200;

if (text.len > 500) text.len = 500;
make setup check

cd /usr/local/src
mkdir -p /package
chmod 1755 /package
cd /package
tar xzfp /usr/local/src/daemontools-0.76.tar.gz
cd admin/daemontools-0.76

Download the required files

cd /usr/local/src
Create the users and groups required for qmail

groupadd nofiles
useradd -g nofiles -d /var/qmail qmaild
useradd -g nofiles -d /var/qmail qmaill
useradd -g nofiles -d /var/qmail qmailp
useradd -g nofiles -d /var/qmail/alias alias
groupadd qmail
useradd -g qmail -d /var/qmail qmailq
useradd -g qmail -d /var/qmail qmailr
useradd -g qmail -d /var/qmail qmails
Unzip the sources, apply the required patches, compile

tar xzf qmail-1.03.tar.gz
cd qmail-1.03
# Apply patch that allows qmail to work with oversize DNS packets
patch -p1 < ../qmail-103.patch
# Apply the "qmailqueue" patch
# This patch gives you the required support for other popular addons like Qmail-Scanner
patch -p1 < ../qmailqueue-patch
# Apply patch to make qmail-local and qmail-pop3d compatible with the maildir++ quota
# system that is used by vpopmail and courier-imap
patch < ../qmail-maildir++.patch
# Apply patch for local timestamps.
# This will make the emails headers be written in localtime rather than GMT
patch -p1 < ../qmail-date-localtime.patch.txt
# Apply patch to limit the size of bounce messages generated by our server.
# The patch will limit the size of the bounce to be 50K,
# or you can override this by setting a different value in /var/qmail/control/bouncemaxbytes
patch < ../qmail-limit-bounce-size.patch.txt
# Now add the qregex patch, which adds regexp support to qmail's badmailfrom,
# and also implements badmailto checking (again with regexp support)
patch < ../qregex.patch-20020129.txt
# Apply patch to add ESMTP SIZE support to qmail-smtpd
# This helps your server be able to reject excessively large messages "up front",
# rather than waiting for the whole message to arrive and then bouncing it because
# exceeded the /var/qmail/control/databytes setting.
# Nother that particular patch has been modified so it will apply cleanly in
# conjunction with the other patches I have supplied above. The original version
# of this patch would fail because it conflicted with the qregex patch.
patch < ../qmail-smtpd-esmtp-size_qregex-compat.diff.txt
Edit qmail-smtpd.c and change the code on the straynewline function (around line 54) from 451 to 553
Without this you will get nasty loops forming when a remote servers sends you an message with invalid formatting. By default qmail will says something like "I am not going to accept that message at the moment, you can try again later". However in my experience the sending server will try sending the same message again a few seconds later, and this will go around and around in a loop for days on end - consuming valuable bandwidth and resources. By changing the error code to 553, it is making the error be permanent ie "I am not going to accept that message, don't try sending it again"

make setup check
cd ..
Remove the sendmail package, and link in qmail's replacement utility

# If you are running redhat 8, you may first need to remove the postfix
# package, so that mail to [email protected] will work correctly :
rpm -e --nodeps postfix
# OK, now go ahead and remove the sendmail package
rpm -e --nodeps sendmail
# Link in qmail's replacement "sendmail-like" tools
ln -s /var/qmail/bin/sendmail /usr/lib
ln -s /var/qmail/bin/sendmail /usr/sbin
The qmailctl script contains all the various commands that will allow us to control our qmail daemons. Put it in with the other qmail binaries. Also link it into /usr/bin so it will be in our "path" for easy access

cp /usr/local/src/qmailctl.txt /var/qmail/bin/qmailctl
chmod 755 /var/qmail/bin/qmailctl
ln -s /var/qmail/bin/qmailctl /usr/bin
Setup the /etc/tcp.smtp file
This file controls who is allowed to send and/or relay mail on this server
An example configuration follows :

# If you set 'allow', this means that our mail server will allow
# the specified IP range to make a TCP connection to our server
# If you set 'deny', this means that our mail server will not allow
# the specified IP range to make a TCP connection to our server
# If you set RELAYCLIENT="", this means that the listed IP range is
# allowed to relay mail through our server
# If you dont set RELAYCLIENT="", this means that the listed IP range
# will not be able to relay mail through our server
# If you set RBLSMTPD="", this means that the listed IP ranges will
# not be checked against any of the RBL databases
# If you set RBLSMTPD="some text here", this means that an RBL lookup
# wont be performed, but the mail will be rejected with the specified
# text as a 4xx temp error message
# If you set RBLSMTPD="-some text here", this means that an RBL lookup
# wont be performed, but the mail will be rejected with the specified
# text as a 5xx perm error message
# If you do not set RBLSMTPD="" or ="some text", then an RBL lookup
# will be performed. If the lookup is successful, then RBLSMTPD will
# return your custom error message (as specified in the -r parameter
# in smtpd supervise script)
# These IPs are ones that we have setup so that they arent RBL checked.
# We have done this because these particular servers are RBL listed,
# and for whatever reason they can't/won't fix their open relay problem,
# and we still want to be able to receive mail from them.
# reminder text goes here for this entry so we know the story...,RBLSMTPD=""
# reminder text goes here for this entry so we know the story...,RBLSMTPD=""
# connecting regularly and sending invalid
# format messages causing exit with status 256 (bare linefeed normally)
# entry added 15/12/2001
# after looking at the mail coming from these servers it was found to be spam,RBLSMTPD="-Connections from this IP have been banned."
# heaps of spam from replyto of * dec2001
64.228.127.:allow,RBLSMTPD="-Connections refused due to spam from"
154.20.94.:allow,RBLSMTPD="-Connections refused due to spam from"
209.151.132.:allow,RBLSMTPD="-Connections refused due to spam from"
216.18.85.:allow,RBLSMTPD="-Connections refused due to spam from"
# Local class-c's from our LAN are allowed to relay,
# and we wont bother doing any RBL checking.
# Connections from localhost are allowed to relay
# (because the WebMail server runs on localhost),
# and obviously there is no point trying to perform an RBL check.,RELAYCLIENT="",RBLSMTPD=""
# Everyone else can make connections to our server,
# but not allowed to relay
# RBL lookups are performed
Setup the /etc/tcp.pop3 file
This file controls who is allowed to access the POP3 services on this server
An example configuration follows :

# Allow any client to connect to us via POP3
# If people are abusing POP3 such as denial-of-service on POP3,
# you can add their ips here to block them out
Now we have created our tcp.smtp and tcp.pop3 files, we need to compile them into the cdb database format that the tcpserver program can read

qmailctl cdb
Adjust various aspects of the qmail configuration to suite our tastes

# use [email protected] as sender in bounce messages
# rather than the default [email protected]
echo 'postmaster' > /var/qmail/control/bouncefrom
# Define how to handle "double bounces".
# The server admin has two choices here, either to receive double bounces
# or to discard them. If your server doesn't handle a lot of mail then it
# wouldn't hurt to receive all double bounces for the admin's inspection.
# But if your server handles a lot of mail, then it is more likely that you
# are going to want to discard double-bounces, because you will end up with
# potentially thousands of these every day.
# If you want to keep double-bounces, use these commands to nominate what
# email address to send them through to (eg [email protected]) :
echo 'doublebounce' > /var/qmail/control/doublebounceto
echo '' > /var/qmail/control/doublebouncehost
# (dont forget that you will need to make sure you have created a mailbox
# to receive these mails. You could use qmailadmin to create a dedicated
# mailbox, or perhaps setup an alias on an existing mailbox)
# Or if you would prefer to silently discard any doublebounces,
# then use these commands instead
echo 'doublebounce' > /var/qmail/control/doublebounceto
echo '' > /var/qmail/control/doublebouncehost
echo '#' > ~alias/.qmail-doublebounce
chmod 644 ~alias/.qmail-doublebounce
# set maximum message size to be 8Mb
echo '8000000' > /var/qmail/control/databytes
# queue mail for up to 4 days
echo '345600' > /var/qmail/control/queuelifetime
# Populate badmailto so that mail with invalid address formatting gets rejected
echo '# reject containing invalid characters, brackets or multiple @' > /var/qmail/control/badmailto
echo '[!%#:\*\^]' >> /var/qmail/control/badmailto
echo '[\(\)]' >> /var/qmail/control/badmailto
echo '[\{\}]' >> /var/qmail/control/badmailto
echo '@.*@' >> /var/qmail/control/badmailto
# setup the default domain for use where an address does not have a domain specified
echo '' > /var/qmail/control/defaultdomain
# Note, this following command is optional!
# If you want qmail to send all outbound mail via a particular mail server
# rather than to send it direct to the recipient's mail server, then this
# can be achieved with the smtproutes command.
echo '' > /var/qmail/control/smtproutes
# redirect any mail sent to [email protected] to '[email protected]
# redirect any mail sent to [email protected] to '[email protected]
# redirect any mail sent to [email protected] to '[email protected]
echo '[email protected]' > ~alias/.qmail-root
echo '[email protected]' > ~alias/.qmail-postmaster
echo '[email protected]' > ~alias/.qmail-mailer-daemon
chmod 644 ~alias/.qmail-*
Create / configure the various qmail run scripts :

ln -s /var/qmail/bin/qmailctl /etc/rc.d/init.d/qmail
ln -s ../init.d/qmail /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K30qmail
ln -s ../init.d/qmail /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/K30qmail
ln -s ../init.d/qmail /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/S80qmail
ln -s ../init.d/qmail /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S80qmail
ln -s ../init.d/qmail /etc/rc.d/rc4.d/S80qmail
ln -s ../init.d/qmail /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S80qmail
ln -s ../init.d/qmail /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/K30qmail
mkdir -p /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send/log
mkdir -p /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/log
mkdir -p /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-pop3d/log
chmod +t /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send
chmod +t /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd
chmod +t /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-pop3d
vi /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send/run
exec env - PATH="/var/qmail/bin:$PATH" qmail-start ./Maildir/
vi /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send/log/run
# Keep 30 logs of max 10Mb each
# They will get rotated when they reach 10Mb in size,
# or at midnight when our crontab script fires (whichever event comes 1st)
exec /usr/local/bin/setuidgid qmaill /usr/local/bin/multilog t s10000000 n30 /var/log/qmail/send
vi /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/run
QMAILDUID=`id -u qmaild`
NOFILESGID=`id -g qmaild`

exec /usr/local/bin/softlimit -m 4000000 \
/usr/local/bin/tcpserver \
-H -l \
-v -x /etc/tcp.smtp.cdb \
-c 20 -R -u "$QMAILDUID" -g "$NOFILESGID" 0 smtp \
/usr/local/bin/rblsmtpd -b -C \
-r ' message was rejected because the mail server you use is configured to allow OPEN RELAY - More detailed information regarding this problem is available from - Please forward this error through to your email server support staff for easy resolution.' \
-t 5 \
/var/qmail/bin/qmail-smtpd 2>%26amp;1
# The line in orange should be used if you are running qmail on a computer
# that is on a LAN that is using fake ips/masquerading.
# It tells tcpserver not to bother trying to resolve ip addresses
# to names when writing the SMTP log files. Usually with fake ips,
# you cant resolve them to names, so it will make the SMTP services run
# really slowly if it is always trying to resolve these addresses.
# Alternatively, if you are eg an ISP and all your SMTP clients are
# connecting from real IPs with resolvable names, then you can omit
# the orange line and then then benefit from more readable logfiles.
vi /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/log/run
# Keep 30 logs of max 10Mb each
# They will get rotated when they reach 10Mb in size,
# or at midnight when our crontab script fires (whichever event comes 1st)
exec /usr/local/bin/setuidgid qmaill /usr/local/bin/multilog t s10000000 n30 /var/log/qmail/smtpd
vi /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-pop3d/run
exec /usr/local/bin/softlimit -m 4000000 \
/usr/local/bin/tcpserver \
-H -l \
-v -x /etc/tcp.pop3.cdb -c 30 -R 0 pop3 \
/var/qmail/bin/qmail-popup \
/home/vpopmail/bin/vchkpw /var/qmail/bin/qmail-pop3d Maildir 2>%26amp;1
# The line in orange should be used if you are running qmail on a computer
# that is on a LAN that is using fake ips/masquerading.
# It tells tcpserver not to bother trying to resolve ip addresses
# to names when writing the POP3 log files. Usually with fake ips,
# you cant resolve them to names, so it will make the POP3 services run
# really slowly if it is always trying to resolve these addresses.
# Alternatively, if you are eg an ISP and all your POP3 clients are
# connecting from real IPs with resolvable names, then you can omit
# the orange line and then then benefit from more readable logfiles.
vi /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-pop3d/log/run
# Keep 30 logs of max 10Mb each
# They will get rotated when they reach 10Mb in size,
# or at midnight when our crontab script fires (whichever event comes 1st)
exec /usr/local/bin/setuidgid qmaill /usr/local/bin/multilog t s10000000 n30 /var/log/qmail/pop3d
chmod 755 /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send/run
chmod 755 /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send/log/run
chmod 755 /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/run
chmod 755 /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/log/run
chmod 755 /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-pop3d/run
chmod 755 /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-pop3d/log/run
mkdir /var/log/qmail
mkdir /var/log/qmail/smtpd
mkdir /var/log/qmail/send
mkdir /var/log/qmail/pop3d
chown -R qmaill /var/log/qmail
crontab -e
# the following 3 lines rotate the qmail log files daily
0 0 * * * /usr/local/bin/svc -a /service/qmail-smtpd/log
0 0 * * * /usr/local/bin/svc -a /service/qmail-send/log
0 0 * * * /usr/local/bin/svc -a /service/qmail-pop3d/log
ln -s /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send /service
ln -s /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd /service
ln -s /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-pop3d /service
At this point the qmail daemons should be running. A good way to verify this is to use this command :

ps axf
If all is well, you should be able to see something like this :

1218 ? S 0:00 /bin/sh /command/svscanboot
1222 ? S 0:00 \_ svscan /service
1224 ? S 0:00 | \_ supervise qmail-send
1230 ? S 0:00 | | \_ qmail-send
1236 ? S 0:00 | | \_ qmail-lspawn ./Maildir/
1237 ? S 0:00 | | \_ qmail-rspawn
1238 ? S 0:00 | | \_ qmail-clean
1225 ? S 0:00 | \_ supervise log
1233 ? S 0:00 | | \_ /usr/local/bin/multilog t s10000000 n30 /var/log/qmail/send
1226 ? S 0:00 | \_ supervise qmail-smtpd
1231 ? S 0:00 | | \_ /usr/local/bin/tcpserver -v -x /etc/tcp.smtp.cdb -c 20 -R -u 504 -g 503 0 smtp /var/qmail/bin
1227 ? S 0:00 | \_ supervise log
1234 ? S 0:00 | | \_ /usr/local/bin/multilog t s10000000 n30 /var/log/qmail/smtpd
1228 ? S 0:00 | \_ supervise qmail-pop3d
1232 ? S 0:00 | | \_ /usr/local/bin/tcpserver -v -x /etc/tcp.pop3.cdb -c 30 -H -R 0 110 /var/qmail/bin/qmail-popup
1229 ? S 0:00 | \_ supervise log
1235 ? S 0:00 | \_ /usr/local/bin/multilog t s10000000 n30 /var/log/qmail/pop3d
1223 ? S 0:00 \_ readproctitle service errors: .......................................................................
Note the 3 qmail daemons : qmail-send, qmail-smtpd, qmail-pop3d, as well as their associated logging processes. If there is anything wrong with your install, an error message will generally be visible on the "readproctitle" line

You can control the qmail daemons by using the qmailctl program. You can just type that command without any parameters and it will display the available options eg start, stop, status, doqueue


Original Authors :
Current Development location : (Original author's home page) (The recent vpopmail development work is being done via Sourceforge)

Make the user accounts

# If you are using RH8.0, you will probably need to run this following command,
# because RH8.0 comes preconfigured with UID/GID 89 allocated to postfix
# userdel postfix

groupadd -g 89 vchkpw
useradd -g vchkpw -u 89 vpopmail
# We recommend you use the user and group id's of 89. The FreeBSD folks
# have reserved 89 for the group and 89 for the user for vpopmail. Feel
# free to have the OS assign the group/user id (for example, Solaris won't
# allow gid 89).
Download and unpack the source

cd /usr/local/src
tar xzf vpopmail-5.4.0.tar.gz
chown -R root.root vpopmail-5.4.0
cd vpopmail-5.4.0
Setup the MySQL support in the vpopmail sources

# Create the configuration file that vpopmail will use
# to setup the connection to the mysql database
# This example will tell vpopmail :
# * Log into the server running on localhost
# * Use the default mysql port
# (In fact if the server is localhost, and you don't specify a port number, then
# I believe the that communications are done via unix sockets rather than TCP/IP)
# * Login with username vpopmailuser
# * Login with password vpoppasswd
# * Use the database called vpopmail
echo "localhost|0|vpopmailuser|vpoppasswd|vpopmail" > ~vpopmail/etc/vpopmail.mysql
chown vpopmail.vchkpw ~vpopmail/etc/vpopmail.mysql
chmod 640 ~vpopmail/etc/vpopmail.mysql
# log into MySQL as the MySQL root user
# and then create the database for vpopmail to use
# and then setup the appropriate permissions on this database
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql --password="mysql-root-pwd"
GRANT select,insert,update,delete,create,drop ON vpopmail.*
TO [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY 'vpoppasswd';
Now, build the program

./configure \
-, , -disable-roaming-users \
--enable-logging=p \
--disable-passwd \
--enable-clear-passwd \
--disable-domain-quotas \
--enable-auth-module=mysql \
--disable-many-domains \
--enable-auth-logging \
--enable-mysql-logging \
--enable-valias \

<-- We aren't building roaming user support in this example
<-- Log POP3 authentication errors to syslog (/var/log/maillog)
<-- Don't include /etc/passwd support. Our box doesnt have any "real" users, only vpopmail users
<-- Enable storing passwords in cleartext. Makes your support staff's life much easier!
<-- Domain quotas allow you to limit the amount of storage a particular domain can use.
<-- Store all the user and domain information in MySQL rather than using disk-based "cdb" files
<-- Tell vpopmail to create one MySQL table per email domain
<-- Maintain a lastauth table in MySQL (shows when / how a user last accessed their email)
<-- Maintain the vlog table in MySQL (shows failed authentication requests)
<-- Enable MySQL valias processing
<-- Use disk-based ".qmailadmin-limits" files rather than storing this data in MySQL

make install-strip
Notes :

The "--enable-mysql-limits" configuration option is new. I plan to update my guide to use this function at some point in the near future once I have done some testing etc of this functionality

Review the contents of the file is used to set the default limits for any domains / mailboxes in the vpopmail system. Make sure it contains reasonable defaults for your system.

vi ~vpopmail/etc/vlimits.default
# in particular set the default mailbox size to be something reasonable eg 20Mb
default_quota 20971520
Optionally, nominate a "default domain". Users in this domain can login to POP3 etc using just their username. Users from all other domains need to use their full email address as their login name.

echo "" > /home/vpopmail/etc/defaultdomain
Setup the quota warning message that is sent to users when they are at 90% quota

vi quotawarn.msg
From: SomeCompany Postmaster
Reply-To: [email protected]com
To: SomeCompany User:;
Subject: Mail quota warning
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Your mailbox on the server is now more than 90% full.

So that you can continue to receive mail,
you need to remove some messages from your mailbox.

If you require assistance with this,
please contact our support department :

email : [email protected]
Tel : xx xxxx xxxx
cp quotawarn.msg /home/vpopmail/domains/.quotawarn.msg
If you want, you can alter the standard message that gets sent to the sender in an overquota situation

echo "Message rejected. Not enough storage space in user's mailbox to accept message." > /home/vpopmail/domains/.over-quota.msg
OK, vpopmail is now installed!

Some example vpopmail commands :

To add a domain :

/home/vpopmail/bin/vadddomain yourpassword
# this creates the domain and makes a mailbox [email protected]
To add a mailbox:

/home/vpopmail/bin/vadduser [email protected] apassword
(Or you can do it via qmailadmin)

To remove a mailbox

/home/vpopmail/bin/vdeluser [email protected]
(Or you can do it via qmailadmin)

To remove a domain :

To change a user's password

/home/vpopmail/bin/vpasswd [email protected] newpassword
(Or you can do it via qmailadmin)

To lookup info about a user

/home/vpopmail/bin/vuserinfo [email protected]
This gives you info such as name, crypted password, cleartext password, dir, quota, usage%, last auth.
It has a number of flags to let you see the individual fields, or you can see them all if you dont use any flags.

It also creates the maildirsize file in the users dir

Logging in via POP3

When your users are setting up their POP3 email clients (eg Outlook Express), they should use settings like this :

My incoming mail server is a POP3 server
Incoming mail server (POP3):
Outgoing mail server (SMTP):
POP3 account name : [email protected]
Password: theirpassword

When you configured vpopmail, you had the opportunity to nominate a "default" domain. When users from the default domain authenticate, it is optional for them to add the onto the end of their username. If vpopmail sees that no domain has been specified by the user, then it will automatically perform the auth against the nominated default domain. If you are hosting multiple domains, then everyone who is NOT in the default domain MUST add their domain name onto the end of their username. (A small percentage of email programs eg Netscape Mail v4.7 do not permit the use of the @ symbol in account name. In this case you can use the % symbol instead of the @ symbol)

vpopmail roaming users :

With qmail, the typical way to control mail relaying is to put a list of rules into a file called tcp.smtp. The tcprules program is then used to compile this file into cdb database format with the output being stored in a file called tcp.smtp.cdb. The tcpserver program is configured (using the -x parameter) to read this file and thus know which SMTP clients are permitted to relay mail.

This type of configuration works well if there is a known range of IP addresses that are permitted to relay mail. eg the IP's on the qmail server's local LAN. However if the qmail server needs to provide outbound SMTP services for clients who may be connecting from any IP, you are going to run into problems. What is needed is some way to automate the process of granting users the ability to relay mail, without opening up access to all and sundry on the Internet.

vpopmail includes a solution for this problem. The solution is known as "roaming users" and is implemented with a technique known as "POP-before-SMTP". Once a client has successfully authenticated via POP3, vpopmail will add the client's IP to a list. vpopmail then merges this list with the contents of the tcp.smtp file and runs the tcprules program to compile a new version of the tcp.smtp.cdb file. Thus the client can now relay mail.

In addition to storing the client's IP address, vpopmail will also store the time of authentication. The postmaster uses a cronjob on the qmail server to periodically (eg once per hour) run the clearopensmtp program. This program scans through the list of roaming clients and removes any entries that exceed the nominated age (eg 3 hours). This ensures that the list of IPs does not grow out of bounds, and that the roaming IPs are closed within a reasonable timeframe after being opened.

Configuration options for vpopmail that relate to roaming users :

./configure \
--enable-roaming-users \ <- enable roaming users functionality
--enable-tcprules-prog=path \ <- defaults to /usr/local/bin/tcprules
--enable-tcpserver-file=path \ <- defaults to /home/vpopmail/etc/tcp.smtp
--enable-relay-clear-minutes=minutes <- defaults to 180
Notes :

qmail servers are typically built with the tcp.smtp files being located in the /etc directory. This is not usually suitable for vpopmail roaming users, since the /etc directory will (should) not have write permissions for the vpopmail user. Therefore it is not going to be possible for vpopmail to write out updated versions of the tcp.smtp.cdb file. For use with roaming users, it is recommended that the tcp.smtp files are stored in ~vpopmail/etc

If a POP user auths, and their IP already exists in the roaming IP list, the timestamp for the entry is updated, but the tcprules program is not run. There is no need to rebuild the tcp.smtp.cdb file as the IP address is already permitted to relay. Rebuilding the file will only waste disk and CPU time.

If the vpopmail server is using the default cdb authentication backend, then the list of roaming IPs will be stored in a file called ~vpopmail/etc/open-smtp. If the vpopmail server is using the MySQL backend, the roaming IPs will be stored in a database table called relay. The SQL backend will give better performance on a busy server. Either way though, you should be cautious about enabling roaming user functionality on a very busy server, as a large amount of disk and CPU will be used with the continual rebuilding of the tcp.smtp.cdb file. If the server is busy enough you could run into nasty file locking issues which will cause vpopmail password authentication to intermittently fail. If you absolutely must have POP-before-SMTP functionality on your busy server, then there are only two possible solutions that I can think of : 1) you could try putting the tcp.smtp files onto a RAM disk, or 2) use vpopmail's MySQL auth backend, plus use Matt Simerson's tcpserver patch that allows all of the tcp.smtp files to be stored in MySQL

Over time POP-before-SMTP seems to slowly becoming a less favored way of allowing roaming users to relay mail. SMTP-Auth appears to becoming the more preferred option, as it scales much more easily on a busy server. However for a small to medium sized server, POP-before-SMTP is still quite a workable option. If you would like investigate the use of SMTP-Auth take a look at this patch


Current development location :

This package is a prerequisite for qmailadmin

Download and unpack the source

cd /usr/local/src
tar xzf autorespond-2.0.4.tar.gz
chown -R root.root autorespond-2.0.4
cd autorespond-2.0.4
Build the program

make install
This package is a prerequisite for qmailadmin

ezmlm is mailing list software written by the author of qmail
ezmlm-idx is patch that adds extra features to the standard ezmlm program.


(although I often find this site unresponsive, and so I use one of the mirrors instead like

Download and unpack the ezmlm sources

cd /usr/local/src
tar xzf ezmlm-0.53.tar.gz
chown -R root.root ezmlm-0.53
tar xzf ezmlm-idx-0.40.tar.gz
chown -R root.root ezmlm-idx-0.40
Merge the sources together

cp -R ezmlm-idx-0.40/* ezmlm-0.53/
# (you need to press y quite a few times to allow the patch files to overwrite the original files)
cd ezmlm-0.53
patch < idx.patch
Build the program

make man
make setup
Original Authors :
Current Development location :

Description :

The domain postmaster can use this tool to view all the accounts on the domain as well as add/remove accounts, forwards, auto-responders etc.

Domains users can use this tool to modify their own user settings only. ie mailbox password, real name, forwards, vacations.

This tool does not let you create new domains.

Download and unpack the source

cd /usr/local/src
tar xzf qmailadmin-1.2.0.tar.gz
chown -R root.root qmailadmin-1.2.0
cd qmailadmin-1.2.0
(Optional) Make a small mod that affects the look of the qmailadmin login page

edit the lang/en file, and change record 112 "Username" rather than "User Account"
(We found our users knew what to type as their "Username", but didn't know what to type as a "User Account")

Build the program

./configure \
--enable-htmldir=/usr/local/apache/htdocs \
--enable-cgibindir=/usr/local/apache/cgi-bin \
--enable-maxusersperpage=12 \
--enable-maxaliasesperpage=12 \
--disable-modify-quota \
--disable-ezmlm-mysql \
# note, I chose to have 12 accounts per page in the config above,
# because this makes these particular screens fit nicely on my 1024*768 monitor
make install-strip
Test to see if it works
If you login a domain postmaster, then you should get the screens where you can view all and add/remove mailboxes, aliases, mailinglists etc on the domain. etc

If you login as a user, you can only access your own mailbox settings (eg password, forwards, vacation messages)

Setting limits :

You can setup limits on any domains where required by putting a .qmailadmin-limits file into the domain's virtual dir (/home/vpopmail/domains/ Make sure vpopmail user has read permissions for this file.

Syntax of .qmailadmin-limits file is as follows :

maxpopaccounts X
maxforwards X
maxmailinglists X
maxautoresponders X

Set X to be the maximum desired number for that feature
Set X to be 0 if you want to disable that feature %26amp; menu item

There are also some other settings that can be specified in the .qmailadmin-limits file, refer to section 6 of the qmailadmin installation instructions ( for more info

A bit of a long-winded misc note to myself :

(If you are setting up your vpopmail server for the first time, then this block of text has no relevance to you. You can skip straight past this waffle and go onto the next section...)

As of qmailadmin-1.0.21, you cant create "aliases" any more. What qmailadmin previously created as aliases, are now created as forwards. Aliases dump incoming mail for that aliased address directly into the recipient user's Maildir. The problem with this is it bypassed any further ".qmail" processing, meaning that you ran into problems if you were trying to setup some of the more fancy things (like per-user SpamAssassin configurations?). Using forwards bypasses this problem as the message will get re-injected back into the queue for delivery.

However this change does cause some problems for sites that already have existing aliases in use. The problem is that when you go into qmailadmin-1.0.21 and select the forwards screen, all the existing aliases and forwards for that domain are displayed.

Problem # 1 : For mail that is being redirected to a local account, you can't tell from this screen whether the user is getting alias or forward delivery. If you were trying to setup some tricky per-user stuff, then you are going to get variable results because some users may be configured as alias, and others are configured as forward, but you cant easily tell which is which from this screen

Problem # 2 : Up the top there is a count showing "[Used # / limit]". This count relates to the number of forwards in use and the maxforwards qmailadmin-limits setting. The count ignores any existing aliases. This could potentially cause confusion for domain postmasters as you will be looking at a screen full of accounts and if some of them have been previously setup as aliases then it is going to be hard to reconcile the reported count against the number of accounts displayed on the screen

What is needed is some sort of utility that will scan and find existing aliases and convert them over to the now-preferred forward syntax.... That would keep the delivery method consistent for all users, and would also eliminate any problems with the qmailadmin-limits code

Note: As of qmailadmin-1.0.25, there is a tool for converting existing aliases to forwards. Look in the contrib dir for the tools called



Courier-IMAP is an IMAP server. Having an IMAP server is a prerequisite to be able run a IMAP-client WebMail system like SquirrelMail. Courier-IMAP is good choice because it has support for vpopmail authentication and maildir mailboxes.

Download and unpack the source

cd /usr/local/src
bunzip2 courier-imap-2.1.1.tar.bz2
tar xf courier-imap-2.1.1.tar
chown -R root.root courier-imap-2.1.1
cd courier-imap-2.1.1
Build the program

./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/courier-imap \
--disable-root-check \
--without-authpam \
--without-authldap \
--without-authpwd \
--without-authmysql \
--without-authpgsql \
--without-authshadow \
--without-authuserdb \
--without-authcustom \
--without-authcram \
--with-authdaemon \
--with-authvchkpw \
# note, if you are building courier on redhat/fedora, you may have to add a
# --with-redhat
# to the list of configuration settings above
make install
make install-configure
The Courier-IMAP package includes 4 servers that can be individually enabled/disabled : IMAP, IMAP-SSL, POP3, POP3SSL. In this example, we are only using the IMAP server.

vi /usr/local/courier-imap/etc/imapd
<-- Max number of IMAP daemons
<-- All connections will be coming from single IP (SquirrelMail on localhost)
<-- Our vpopmail authentication is built into the authdaemon modules
<-- Enable automatic purging of mail from these folders
<-- allow our init.d script (below) to boot up the imapd

Configure Courier-IMAP so it is running all the time from bootup onwards

cp /usr/local/src/courier-imap-2.1.1/courier-imap.sysvinit /etc/rc.d/init.d/courier-imap
chmod 744 /etc/rc.d/init.d/courier-imap
chkconfig --add courier-imap
Then I like to use the ntsysv program to double-check that courier-imap is set to launch at boot time

If you aren't ready to reboot the server now, you can fire up Courier-IMAP in the mean time with this command :

/etc/rc.d/init.d/courier-imap start
At this point the courier-imap software should be running. A good way to verify this is to use this command :

ps axf
And if all is well, you should be able to see something like this :

24033 ? S 0:00 /usr/local/courier-imap/libexec/authlib/authdaemond.plain start
18973 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/courier-imap/libexec/authlib/authdaemond.plain start
18974 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/courier-imap/libexec/authlib/authdaemond.plain start
18975 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/courier-imap/libexec/authlib/authdaemond.plain start
18976 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/courier-imap/libexec/authlib/authdaemond.plain start
18977 ? S 0:00 \_ /usr/local/courier-imap/libexec/authlib/authdaemond.plain start
24043 ? S 0:00 /usr/local/courier-imap/libexec/couriertcpd -address=0 -stderrlogger=/usr/local/courier-imap/libexec/cour
24046 ? S 0:00 /usr/local/courier-imap/libexec/courierlogger imapd



the text with yellow background is specific to using MySQL backend. if you don't want to use MySQL backend, then just skip over these sections....

Go to the SquirrelMail download page, and save the latest source to /usr/local/src. In this example I have used :

Download and unpack all the sources

cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs
tar xzf /usr/local/src/squirrelmail-1.5.0.tar.gz
chown -R root.www squirrelmail-1.5.0
chmod -R 750 squirrelmail-1.5.0
ln -s squirrelmail-1.5.0 squirrelmail
Create the required directory structure

mkdir /var/squirrelmail
# create the data dir. This is where users personal preferences are stored if not using MySQL backend
mkdir /var/squirrelmail/data
# create the attach dir. This is where temp files for emails in progress are store
mkdir /var/squirrelmail/attach
cd squirrelmail
cp data/default_pref /var/squirrelmail/data
chown -R root.www /var/squirrelmail
chmod -R 0770 /var/squirrelmail/data
chmod -R 0730 /var/squirrelmail/attach
SquirrelMail allows you to add your company logo to the login page. So whack a copy of your logo into the Apache images directory so it is available for SquirrelMail to use

cp /usr/local/src/yourcompanylogo-100.gif /usr/local/apache/htdocs/images
Configure SquirrelMail

cd config
Choose Courier
1. Organization name : YourCompany
2. Organization Logo : /images/yourcompanylogo-100.gif
3. Org. Logo Height/Width : 100/100
4. Organization title : YourCompany WebMail (v$version)
7. Provider link :
8. Provider name : YourCompany
1. Domain :
Press A to update IMAP settings
4. IMAP Server : localhost
5. IMAP Port : 143
6. Authentication type : login
7. Secure IMAP (TLS) : false
8. Server software : courier
9. Delimiter : .
Press B to update SMTP settings
4. SMTP Server : localhost
5. SMTP Port : 25
6. POP before SMTP : false
7. SMTP Authentication : none
8. Secure SMTP (TLS) : false
9. List Special Folders First : false
15. Default Unseen Type : 2
1. Data directory : /var/squirrelmail/data
2. Attachment directory : /var/squirrelmail/attach
5. Usernames in lower case : true
8. Hide SM attributions : true
11. Allow server-side sorting : false
( Note, server-sorting is faster, but I personally find the sort results to be not as "intuitive"
compared with when you let SquirrelMail do the sorting. If you toggle this option on/off and compare
the resultant displays in SquirrelMail you will see what I mean. For example if you server-sort the
FROM column then the sort will be done senders email address, whereas if you let SquirrelMail do the
sort then column will be sorted on senders name. I would suggest you try toggling this
option on and off to make your own decision on which sorting method provides the better results.)
2. Use javascript Address Book Search : True
1. DSN for address book : mysql://squirreluser:[email protected]/squirrelmail
3. DSN for preferences : mysql://squirreluser:[email protected]/squirrelmail
Now Save and quit the config program

Create the necessary database and tables in MySQL, so that SquirrelMail can store the address books and user preferences there :

cd /usr/local/mysql/bin
./mysql --password="mysql-root-pwd"
CREATE DATABASE squirrelmail;
GRANT select,insert,update,delete ON squirrelmail.*
TO [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY 'squirrelpassword';
USE squirrelmail;
CREATE TABLE address (
owner varchar(128) DEFAULT '' NOT NULL,
nickname varchar(16) DEFAULT '' NOT NULL,
firstname varchar(128) DEFAULT '' NOT NULL,
lastname varchar(128) DEFAULT '' NOT NULL,
email varchar(128) DEFAULT '' NOT NULL,
label varchar(255),
PRIMARY KEY (owner,nickname),
KEY firstname (firstname,lastname)
CREATE TABLE userprefs (
user varchar(128) DEFAULT '' NOT NULL,
prefkey varchar(64) DEFAULT '' NOT NULL,
prefval blob DEFAULT '' NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (user,prefkey)

You can define what default SquirrelMail settings that users will receive when they log in.

For MySQL backend

cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs/squirrelmail
# replace the default preferences definition in the db_prefs file
# with our own customised defaults.
# Open the file, scroll down and replace the existing "var $default"
# entry (on line 80) with our customised version shown below
vi functions/db_prefs.php
var $default = Array('chosen_theme' => '../themes/default_theme.php',
'show_html_default' => '1',
'language' => 'en_US',
'use_javascript_addr_book' => '1',
'left_size' => '140',
'left_refresh' => '3600',
'show_username' => '1',
'show_username_pos' => 'top',
'order1' => '1',
'order2' => '2',
'order3' => '3',
'order4' => '5',
'order5' => '4',
'order6' => '6');
Or, if you aren't running MySQL backend for SquirrelMail, you can adjust the default preferences like this :

vi /var/squirrelmail/data/default_pref :

Setup periodic purging of the "attach" directory

When SquirrelMail users are composing a message that has attachment(s), the attachment is temporarily stored in the /var/squirrelmail/attach directory. When the user sends the message, the associated temp files will get deleted.

However sometimes the temp files do not get deleted (eg if the user closes their browser mid-compose?). Since the permissions on this directory are setup (as a security measure) to prevent the webserver from listing the files in this directory, there is no way for Apache/SquirrelMail to do a periodic scan/purge of old files.

So we are going to setup a daily crontab to clean up any attachments that get left hanging around

crontab -e
# delete any files that are more than 2 days old from the SquirrelMail attachment dir
0 0 * * * find /var/squirrelmail/attach/* -atime +2 -exec /bin/rm {} \;
Install the quota_usage plugin so users can see their mailbox quota usage

cd /usr/local/src
cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs/squirrelmail/plugins
tar xzf /usr/local/src/quota_usage-1.2.tar.gz
tar xzf /usr/local/src/compatibility-1.2.tar.gz
chown -R root.www quota_usage
chmod -R o-rx quota_usage
chown -R root.www compatibility
chmod -R o-rx compatibility
# qmailadmin and the other tools all classify a 1Mb as 1048576 bytes (1024 * 1024 )
# Fix up the quota_plugin so it works with the same units.
# Otherwise your quota would show as 20M in qmailadmin, and 21M in SquirrelMail :-/
vi quota_usage/functions.php
Go to line 37 and change the value 1000000 to 1048576
cd ../config
8. Plugins
choose quota_usage
choose compatibility
Optionally, Setup SSL mode at login time

cd /usr/local/src
cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs/squirrelmail/plugins
tar xzf /usr/local/src/secure_login-1.0-1.2.8.tar.gz
chown -R root.www secure_login
chmod -R o-rx secure_login

cd ../config
8. Plugins, and choose secure_login

Optionally, modify SquirrelMail so that it will any failed login attempts to the syslog

modify squirrelmail/functions/imap_general.php

search for the line that has "Unknown user or password incorrect"
above this line add :

syslog(LOG_MAIL|LOG_NOTICE,"Squirrelmail login failed for Username : $username, Password : $password");
now failed SquirrelMail logins will be logged to /var/log/maillog :-)

We also added some code to squirrelmail/src/login.php to add a notes page to the login screen. We inserted this chunk just before the line that says "do_hook('login_bottom');

echo "





The mail server will automatically delete mail from the
"following folders after the specified number of days :
"Trash Folder - 7 days, Sent Folder - 30 days".



If you check your mail using a POP3 mail client (such as Outlook Express),
"it will download and delete the mail from your WebMail inbox.


If you want to be able to download the mail using POP3 and also
"leave it on the server so you can see it with WebMail, you will need
"to adjust the settings in your POP3 client to tell it not to delete
"mail after downloading.


For example, to configure this in Outlook Express you would go to
"Tools -> Accounts -> Mail -> Properties -> Advanced
"and then tick the box
'Leave a copy of message on server'



Now, another cosmetic change... : modify the squirrelmail/src/login.php and change the wording of "Name:" to "Email address:".

Next, we setup a default document in the web servers root, to redirect our customers through to the SquirrelMail login page. That way when people want to access the WebMail tool they can point their browser to "" and they will get automatically redirected through to the SquirrelMail directory

vi /usr/local/apache/htdocs/index.html

Redirect to WebMail login screen...

Redirecting to the WebMail login screen...

Click here if you are not automatically redirected


OK, now you have a working mail server.. You have loaded all your users and they are giving the new system a good workout. Everything is running nice and smoothly. You sit back and think "my job is done!"

Until... users starting coming to you and saying... "Hey, this new mail server is really good... But how do I block out all these viruses and spam?"... Uh oh...!

Well, luckily the answer is relatively easy..... The qmail-scanner program lets us easily implement anti-spam and anti-virus. Installation instructions follow :


If Razor is installed, SpamAssassin will automatically include it in the list of tests run. We found that Razor is quite accurate in identifying spam, and it only added small amount of extra CPU load on the server, so it is definitely worth installing.

Compile and install :

# install the pre-requisite modules for razor
perl -MCPAN -e shell
#(enter your way through all the questions. The only one you will likely have to answer is regarding your Continent/Country)
# tell the cpan shell to follow the dependency tree and automatically grab any required modules
o conf prerequisites_policy follow
# install the razor pre-requisites now
install Net::Ping Net:NS Time::HiRes Test::More Digest::SHA1 Digest::Nilsimsa Digest::md5 Digest::HMAC URI
# and while we are here, we will make sure we have all the SpamAssassin prerequisites installed as well
install ExtUtils::MakeMaker File::Spec Pod::Usage HTML::Parser DB_File Net:NS
# now install the actual razor software
tar xzf razor-agents-2.36.tar.gz
chown -R root.root razor-agents-2.36
cd razor-agents-2.36
perl Makefile.PL
patch -p0 -d lib/Razor2 < Razor2.patch.txt
make test
make install
cd ..
The Razor programs will now be installed in /usr/bin. In particular, SpamAssassin makes use of the program called : "razor-check"

Last job is to create the Razor configuration files (they get put into /etc/razor/) by using these commands :

razor-admin -d -create -home=/etc/razor

Description :

SpamAssassin is program that scans email messages using a set of rules, and then assigns a score. If the score is higher than your nominated limit, then the message will be tagged as spam.

Download and compile

tar xzf Mail-SpamAssassin-2.63.tar.gz
chown -R root.root Mail-SpamAssassin-2.63
cd Mail-SpamAssassin-2.63
perl Makefile.PL
make install
"make install" creates the following main files :

/usr/bin/spamassassin <- This is the command-line version of the SpamAssassin program
/usr/bin/spamc <- Daemonised Spamassassin client
/usr/bin/spamd <- Daemonised Spamassassin server
/usr/share/spamassassin/ <- The Spamassasin logic/filter files live here
/etc/mail/spamassassin/ <- sitewide configuration settings
Test to see if the installation was successful. (Watch the output from the script. Spamassassin will add headers to the message. In particular look for the "X-Spam-Status: " and see if it correctly tags the message with a Yes or No)

spamassassin -t < sample-nonspam.txt
spamassassin -t < sample-spam.txt
To improve security, modify the configuration of the spamd daemon so it runs under its own uid

Create a spamd user for the spamd process to run as

groupadd spamd
useradd -g spamd spamd
Modify / create the spamd configuration file

vi /etc/sysconfig/spamassassin
# Hint : if you want to enable SpamAssassin debugging
# (the debug output goes to /var/log/maillog) then use :
# SPAMDOPTIONS="-x -u spamd -H /home/spamd -d -D"
# Don't leave debugging turned on unnecessarily though,
# because it will slow down a busy server.
# Otherwise, for normal operation (debugging disabled) use :
SPAMDOPTIONS="-x -u spamd -H /home/spamd -d"
Configure the spamd daemon so it is running all the time from bootup onwards

cp spamd/ /etc/rc.d/init.d/spamd
chmod 700 /etc/rc.d/init.d/spamd
cd ..
chkconfig --add spamd
Then I like to use the ntsysv program to double-check that spamd is set to launch at boot time

Setup the SpamAssassin configuration

vi /etc/mail/spamassassin/
# Define the sensitivity level. Standard level is 5.
# After a lot of testing, we found that 10 was the best option.
# We found that anything lower produced too many false positives
required_hits 10
# Allow SpamAssassin to rewrite the subject line of any messages it classifies as spam
rewrite_subject 1
# This is the value that will prepended to the subject line of messages classified as spam
subject_tag [SPAM]
# Put spam analysis reports into to the headers of the message (rather than the body)
report_safe 0
# Spamassassin by default will try and run these following spam-detection utilities
# for every mail message. (You can read about them at
# We don't want to waste any CPU cycles trying to run utilities that we don't have installed,
# so disable these tests for the moment .
use_dcc 0
use_pyzor 0
# enable razor2 checking
use_razor2 1
# Enable SpamAssassin's RBL checking features :
# Although we have already done some RBL filtering earier in qmail's rblsmtpd program,
# it is still recommended to turn on RBL checking in SpamAssassin, as it will run
# checks against a variety of different RBL sources, and the results will help
# tag spam more accurately
skip_rbl_checks 0
# If we haven't received a response from the RBL server in X seconds, then skip that test
rbl_timeout 3
# Now we want to alter some of the default scores for RBL hits
# By default the RBL score is 0 (disabled).
# We will override this and give any hits a score of 3
# Info about this RBL is available from
# You can nominate any netblocks that you control, and contain mailservers that
# you trust. IE you control the mailservers in these netblocks so there is no
# need to be running RBL checks against these particular servers.
# In this example below we are allowing the class-c to go without
# Spamassassin RBL checking
trusted_networks 123.123.123.
use_bayes 1
bayes_auto_learn 1
bayes_path /home/spamd/.spamassassin/bayes
If you wish to view all the possible configuration options, use this command :

perldoc Mail::SpamAssassin::Conf
OK, the SpamAssassin software is now fully installed!

Any mail that SpamAssassin classifies as spam will have [SPAM] added to the subject line. You should now probably setup some docs for your users showing them how they can use message filtering rules in their email client. You can see our message filtering guides here

If you aren't ready to reboot the server now, you can fire up spamd in the mean time with this command :

/etc/rc.d/init.d/spamd start
If all goes well you will see some output like this :

9721 ? S 0:01 /usr/bin/spamd -x -u spamd -H /home/spamd -d
(Note that spam filtering isn't actually operational on your server yet, you need to use the qmail-scanner program to feed mail through the SpamAssassin scripts)


At my ISP, for the last few years we have used Trend Micro InterScan VirusWall for Linux, and we are happy with its performance and reliability

We tried "McAfee VirusScan Command Line Scanner for Linux" a while back but found it suffered from resource problems and often crashed while scanning mail

The open source Clam antivirus package is also very popular, so I will present installation instructions for it below :

Clam Anti-Virus

Clam antivirus can run in two different modes. Either as a normal command line scanner, or as a client/daemon pair.

When working as a command line scanner, you perform your scanning using the program "clamscan". If a complex program like a virus scanner is run repetitively (ie being launched for every email that passes through your system), it chews up a lot of CPU/disk resources. To get around this issue you can launch Clam as a daemon (clamd). This is where a copy of Clam is launched and stays active in the background. You then do your scanning using the clamdscan client, which is only small, thus making it fast to launch/run. The client sends commands to the daemon, and the daemon will take care of scanning the message and returning the results to the client. (The same technique is used by SpamAssassin where you can use the full spamassassin command line version, or the spamc/spamd client/daemon pair).

In a busy environment, there is no doubt that the client/daemon method is the best way to go, but unfortunately I can not recommend clamd this point, because it doesn't appear to be to be 100% stable. I tried it on the production server at my ISP and it initially seemed to go OK. However I have read reports on the Internet about clamd being unstable, and even the Clam README file makes mention of this problem. So for the moment, I would recommend you don't setup the clamd process, and just stick with the full clamscan scanner.

groupadd clamav
useradd -g clamav -s /bin/false -c "Clam AntiVirus" clamav
tar xzf clamav-0.65.tar.gz
cd clamav-0.65
make install
Download latest updates

/usr/local/bin/freshclam -v
Schedule automatic downloading

touch /var/log/clam-update.log
chmod 600 /var/log/clam-update.log
chown clamav /var/log/clam-update.log
crontab -e
0 * * * * /usr/local/bin/freshclam --quiet -l /var/log/clam-update.log


Description :

Qmail-Scanner is an add-on that enables a qmail server to scan messages for certain characteristics. It is typically used for its anti-virus protection functions, in which case it is used in conjunction with commercial (or open source) virus scanners. It also capable of blocking email that contains specific strings in particular headers, or particular attachment filenames or types (e.g. *.VBS attachments).

Install the required supporting modules for Qmail-Scanner

TNEF unpacker
tar xzf tnef-1.2.3.tar.gz
cd tnef-1.2.3
make install
cd ..
ReformatMIME (from the Maildrop package)
bunzip2 maildrop-1.6.3.tar.bz2
tar xf maildrop-1.6.3.tar
cd maildrop-1.6.3
make install-strip
make install-man
cd ..
Download and unpack the qmail-scanner program
tar xzf qmail-scanner-1.20.tgz
cd qmail-scanner-1.20
Now at this point, I would recommend you spend some time reading the qmail-scanner documentation.

Next, create a user and group for the qmailscanner to run under

groupadd qscand
useradd -c "Qmail-Scanner Account" -g qscand -s /bin/false qscand
Configure Qmail-Scanner :

# Here are the settings we used at our site for configuring Qmail-Scanner :
# configure Qmail-Scanner to work in the following manner :
# - notify a nominated admin each time a virus is detected
# (in this case it will be [email protected])
# - use the command line version of Clam AV for anti-virus scanning.
# I dont recommend clamdscan at this point as the client/daemon method still seems unstable.
# - enable support for spamc/spamd in "verbose" mode.
# Qmail-Scanner can run spamd in "fast" mode or "verbose" mode.
# You can read more about this at the Qmail-Scanner FAQ page.
# I would recommend that you use verbose mode as this allows you to get access to
# the full reporting/tagging features that SpamAssassin can provide. It costs you
# a fraction more CPU power, but provides a much greater range of features.
./configure \
--admin virusadmin --domain \
--scanners clamscan,verbose_spamassassin \
--debug no \
Follow the notes generated by the install script. ie run this command and make sure you receive any errors:

setuidgid qmaild /var/qmail/bin/ -g
Edit the perscanner file which is used to block mail that contains particular strings. perlscanner is a tool that is included with qmail-scanner, and it is executed after all the other anti-virus scanners have run (eg clamscan). This system provides a good failsafe in case some new virus comes along that the virus-scanner cant detect yet. perlscanner is perfect for blocking those virus-prone attachments that have no legitimate purpose in email.

vi /var/spool/qmailscan/quarantine-attachments.txt
Uncomment the following lines :

.vbs 0 VBS files not allowed per Company security policy
.scr 0 SCR files not allowed per Company security policy
.wsh 0 WSH files not allowed per Company security policy
.hta 0 HTA files not allowed per Company security policy
.pif 0 PIF files not allowed per Company security policy
# rebuild the perlscanner database
setuidgid qmaild /var/qmail/bin/ -g
Any SMTP sessions that are dropped (due to network outages/etc) may lead to files lying around in /var/spool/qmailscan . Running /var/qmail/bin/ -z at least once daily will ensure such files are deleted when they're over 30 hours old. We will make a cronjob to do that :

crontab -e
0 0 * * * /var/qmail/bin/ -z
Next, make sure that your qmail-smtpd script allocates sufficient resources to support the needs of Qmail-Scanner + Antivirus + SpamAssassin

vi /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/run
Change the softlimit from 2000000 to something a fair bit larger. We use 15000000.
Now define what mail is to be sent through the Qmail-Scanner.

At our site, we have configured Qmail-Scanner to virusscan all messages (ie inbound and outbound mail). We did this by setting up our our /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/run file like this :

# when QMAILQUEUE is set, all mail will be sent to the nominated script
QMAILQUEUE="/var/qmail/bin/" export QMAILQUEUE

QMAILDUID=`id -u qmaild`
NOFILESGID=`id -g qmaild`

# softlimit needs to be set at something large such as 15000000
# to allow virusscanning software to run successfully
exec /usr/local/bin/softlimit -m 15000000 \
/usr/local/bin/tcpserver -v -x /etc/tcp.smtp.cdb -c 30 -R \
-u "$QMAILDUID" -g "$NOFILESGID" 0 smtp \
... and the rest of the file snipped ...<, BR>However, if you don't want to virusscan all mail, you can selectively nominate which IP ranges should or shouldn't be checked by setting the QMAILQUEUE variable via your /etc/tcp.smtp file rather than inside the supervise/qmail-smtpd/run file. Refer to the Qmail-Scanner home page for setup examples.


How can I tell if SpamAssassin is working?

Each time SpamAssassin processes a message, it will log some information to /var/log/maillog (score, message size, time taken to process)

Not all mail gets passed through SpamAssassin

We have configured our supervise/qmail-smtpd/run script so that it runs Qmail-Scanner for every mail message. This means all incoming and outgoing mail will get virus-checked. However this doesn't necessarily mean that every message passing through Qmail-Scanner will also get sent through SpamAssassin.

Qmail-Scanner has been coded so that messages are only passed onto SpamAssassin if the RELAYCLIENT variable from tcp.smtp is not set. The idea behind this to reduce load on the system by not running SpamAssassin on mail originated by your users.

It is possible to force SpamAssassin checking for local users if you choose by setting QS_SPAMASSASSIN="on" for the appropriate entries in your tcp.smtp file

You can read more about this subject at the Qmail-Scanner FAQ page

Is it possible to configure per-user settings for SpamAssassin?

It depends on your configuration. We believe it will be possible to implement an interface so that vpopmail users can turn SpamAssassin checking on/off, and also set their own custom required_hits. We are hoping to store these settings as additional columns in the vpopmail MySQL database... Stay tuned and we will post more info as it comes to hand

Qmail-scanner's quarantine directory

Each virus infect mail message gets quarantines into the following directory :

So you will need to periodically purge the files from that dir, or else your hard disk will eventually fill up!


"ps axf" is your friend. Particularly useful for visualising how the supervise/qmail processes all fit together.
"ps axfu" is good for double checking what accounts that individual server processes are running under

Since all the information for your email domains and mailboxes are store in MySQL, it is easy to create scripts so your support staff can quickly navigate / view all this account information.

Our support staff's intranet site is a Windows 2000 machine running IIS5 with ASP. Here is a couple of example ASP scripts that I hacked together that show what can be achieved : No doubt it would be easy enough though to use these same techniques in PHP if you are running linux/apache for your intranet

The script "viewvlogs" allows you to view browse through the vpopmail "vlog" table in MySQL to look for people who have failed to auth successfully when trying to check mail.

The script "viewpop3" allows you to see a list of email domains hosted on your server. You can do things like view all users from a domain, or view an individual mailbox. The output will show useful things like clear passwords, mailbox size. Also there are buttons that will log you into qmailadmin or SquirrelMail as a given user using just a single mouse click

Some screenshots of viewpop3 script:

Main login screen
Login to a domain, View all mailboxes on a domain
Login to an email address, View details for email address

One final note, if you are running IIS, you need to download and install the MySQL Connector ODBC "Windows Driver Installer" files onto your server to allows these scripts to work.