阿里开盘上涨1.28%港股市值达40592.12亿港元

导读今天跟小编一起来了解下阿里开盘上涨1.28%港股市值达40592.12亿港元的最新情况........

这些实实在在的建筑物使得一个城市的形象变得鲜明具体,可以给人留下难以磨灭的印象。

三、结论绩效管理是企业全体员工的事情,上至高层领导,下至基层员工,高层领导必须提供强有力的支持,积极的参与其中,给予中层领导者充分的领导支持,让员工和管理者都能看到这种关心和支持,都能跟着行动起来。

从这个层面上讲,它们都是成功的。

现代文化产业注重发展文化创意产业,其主要特征是重视产业发展的高端,重视将文化创意与传统产业相结合,以增加传统产业的文化附加值。

畜牧业服务体系建设滞后的问题也日益凸现,为保障畜牧业稳步快速发展,完善和健全畜牧兽医队伍建设对保障农村畜牧业的持续发展显得尤为迫切和必要。

二、文献综述出口退税作为影响进出口贸易的一个重要手段,学者对其研究从未停止过,单就我国来讲,针对我国出口退税政策进行研究的就有很多。

Howdoesaninvestigationofsocial-culturalinfl论文类别:工商管理论文下载-管理理论论文下载上传时间:2008/9/178:40:00论文作者:未知论文版本:简体版繁体版英文版1.Internationalmarketingingeneralisinfluencedbysocio-cultural,background,religiousbeliefsandcustomswhichcannotbeoverviewed.Theculturaldimensionprovidesthechanceandchallengetomarketers.Sotheinvestigationissignificantwhichwillmakethedecisionaccordinglyandmorecorrectly.Withthefollowingwewillintroducethenecessityindetail.Customisthemostimportantfactorinfluencethemarketing.Infact,successfulmarketingpeoplesawthecloseconnectionbetweencustomandcustomers:thewaytoturnpeopleintocustomersistomakeyourproductpartoftheircustomaryactions.Sometimeswholeindustriesarecreatedaroundacustom(Halloweencostumes)andatothertimes,customsarecreatedaroundaproduct(Valentine’sDaycards).Inbothcases,marketerstookadvantagesofthebasichumanneedforritual.Culturesdistinguishthemselvesbytheirrituals,evenwhentheyshareacommonlanguage.Collectingknowledgeaboutlocalcustomisbestdoneupcloseandfirsthand.Getting“ontheground”informationiswellworththecostthatitmayentail.Ifyourfirsttriptoanewcountryisforthepurposeofsellingaproductratherthaninvestingthepotentialtosellone,youmaybedisappointed.Marketershavetolearnhow,why,andwhenthetargetmarketgoesaboutitsbusinessinordertomakeyourproductfit.Anothershouldbetakenintoconsiderislanguage:Mostoftheworld’snationalboundariesaresetalonglinguisticperimeters.Especiallynames,whichareimportantineverylanguageandformarketers,brandnamesareparamount.Arrivinginanewmarketwithagreatnewproductthat’ssaddledwithabadbrandnamecouldspelldisaster.Evenestablishedinternationalcompanieshaveproblemswiththeirnames:SiemensisrarelyspelledcorrectlyanywherebutGermany,andfewpeopleineastAsiacanpronounceNestleproperty,norcanWesternerspronounceHyundai.Investigationofthelanguagewassurelykeyinnamingtheproduct.Also,thehistorycannotbeneglected.Everycountryandculture,whetherit’sasancientasIndiaorasyoungastheCzechRepublic,hasahistorythatwillgreatlyaffectboththemarketandthemarketer.Understandingthathistorywillenableamarketertoapproachthecultureinamoresubtlemanner,anditwillcertainlycauseanadjustmentofschedule.Ontheotherend,aculturethathasbeenmarkedbyindependenceforsometimewillhavefewfearsofforeignoperationsandmayfindthesubtleapproachfartoolacklusterandslow.Marketersmaybringtheirownbusinesstotheprocessandshouldtakecaretoseparatethemselves,atleastemotionally,fromtheirpersonalandculturalhistory.Oftentimes,thisincludesracialprejudicesthataredifficulttoshake,earlierpoliticaldisagreementsthathaveneverbeenfullysettled,ofoldunhealedwarwounds.Moreover,whenenteringtheforeigntherewillbemanyotheraspectsshouldbelearned,suchasreligion,thefamily,theeducationect.Theinvestigationoftheculturedimensionwillprovideinsightsforthemanagers,andthentheywilldealwiththebusinesseasilyandappropriately.Insomecases,itrunsalonggenderlines.Generallyspeaking,theinvestigationofsocia-culturalinfluenceswillbenefitthethemarketing:engageyourknow-howtoincreasesecurity;getimportantdetailstoreachyourmostimportantprospectivecustomers;reduceyourcostsforgoodscreditsandhence:increaseyourprofit.Themanagersneedtoputgreatemphasisontheinvestigation.2.Entrymodel(think2differententrymodel)inadditiontoevaluating2alternativemarketentrymodes.Alsodiscussthefactorsthatinfluenceaffirmschoicebetweenthealternative.Thereareavarietyofkindstoenteranothermarket,thesimplestformofentrystrategyisexporting,andmorecomplexformsincludetrulyglobaloperationswhichmayinvolvejointventures.ThefollowingwillintroducejointventureandFDI,alsocomparethedifferencebetweenthem.JointventuresJointventurescanbedefinedas"anenterpriseinwhichtwoormoreinvestorsshareownershipandcontroloverpropertyrightsandoperation".Jointventuresareamoreextensiveformofparticipationthaneitherexportingorlicensing.Therearefivecommonobjectivesinajointventure:marketentry,risk/rewardsharing,technologysharingandjointproductdevelopment,andconformingtogovernmentregulations.Otherbenefitsincludepoliticalconnectionsanddistributionchannelaccessthatmaydependonrelationships.Thekeyissuestoconsiderinajointventureareownership,control,lengthofagreement,pricing,technologytransfer,localfirmcapabilitiesandresources,andgovernmentintentions.FDI:Foreigndirectinvestment(FDI)isdefinedas“investmentmadetoacquirelastinginterestinenterprisesoperatingoutsideoftheeconomyoftheinvestor.”TheFDIrelationshipconsistsofaparententerpriseandaforeignaffiliatewhichtogetherformatransnationalcorporation.InordertoqualifyasFDItheinvestmentmustaffordtheparententerprisecontroloveritsforeignaffiliate.ForaninvestmenttoqualifyasFDI,physicalcapitalmustbecreatedintheforeigncountry(suchasmanufacturingfacilities,orfactories.)Thisphysicalcapitaliscontrolledbyafirmbasedoutsideofthereceiving,orhostcountry.Foreigndirectinvestmentisconsideredtobeaverystableinvestmentbecauseitinvolvesthecreationofphysicalcapital.FDIisconsideredtobealongterminvestmentbecausephysicalcapitalisnoteasilyliquidated.Comparethetwomodes:ModeJointventuresDirectinvestmentConditionsfavoringthismodeLargeculturalDistanceAssetscannotbefairlypricedHighsalespotentialSomepoliticalriskGovernmentrestrictionsonforeignownershipLocalcompanycanprovideskills,resources,distributionnetwork,brandname,etc,Partners’size,marketpower,andresourcesaresmallcomparedtotheindustryleaders;SmallculturaldistanceAssetscannotbefairlypricedHighsalespotentialLowpoliticalriskAdvantagesOvercomeownershiprestrictionsandculturaldistanceCombinesresourcesof2companiesPotentialforlearningLessinvestmentrequiredSharingofriskandabilityJointfinancialstrengthMaybeonlymeansofentryandThesourceofsupplyforathirdcountry.GreaterknowledgeoflocalmarketCanbetterapplyspecializedskilledCanbeviewedasaninsiderDisadvantagesDifficulttomanageDilutionofcontrolGreaterriskthanexportinga&licensingMaybeimpossibletorecovercapitalDisagreementonthirdpartymarketstoserveHigherriskRequiresmoreresourcesandcommitmentMaybedifficulttomanagethelocalresourcesCase:QuebecorWorldwillprint20billiondirectorypagesayearinMexico,equaltomorethan75percentoftheMexicandirectorymarket.Whichmakeuseofthefollowingtwopoints:FDIbyacquisition;FDIwillincreasecapacity,andcompetitivenessoftarget.Differentmodesofentrymaybemoreappropriateunderdifferentcircumstances,andthemodeofentryisanimportantfactorinthesuccessoftheproject.Ifthepartnerscarefullymapoutinadvancewhattheyexpecttoachieveandhow,thenmanyproblemscanbeovercome.3.Acquisition(largeconsumermanufacture):Introduction:Undertheconditionofmodernenterprisesystemandmarketeconomy,“acquisition”oftenreferstoalegalactforanenterprisetoacquirethecontrolpowerandmanagingpowerofanotherenterprisethroughacertainchannel.Whichisalsoknownasatakeover,isthebuyingofonecompany(the‘target’)byanother.Anacquisitionmaybefriendlyorhostile.Intheformercase,thecompaniescooperateinnegotiations;inthelattercase,thetakeovertargetisunwillingtobeboughtorthetarget'sboardhasnopriorknowledgeoftheoffer.免费论文下载中Typesofacquisition:Thebuyerbuystheshares,andthereforecontrolsthetargetcompanybeingpurchased.Ownershipcontrolofthecompanyinturnconveyseffectivecontrolovertheassetsofthecompany,butsincethecompanyisacquiredasagoingbusiness;suchtransactioncarriesalloftheliabilitiesaccruedbythatbusinessoveritspastandalloftherisksthatcompanyfacesinitscommercialenvironment.Thebuyerbuystheassetsofthetargetcompany.Thecashthetargetreceivesfromthesell-offispaidbacktoitsshareholders.Suchtransactionleavesthetargetcompanyasanemptyshell.Abuyeroftenstructuresthetransactionasanassetpurchaseto"cherry-pick"theassets.Adisadvantageofthisstructureisthetaxthatmanyjurisdictions.Recently,alongwiththedevelopmentoftheeconomic,thescaleoftheacquisitionbecomesoverwhelmingandthephenomenonmorenormal.ThemainwaysofacquisitionofChineselistedcompaniesbyforeigncapitalarethefollowing:acquisitionbyagreement,acquisitionbyoffer,increasingtoissueBsharetocertainpeople,indirectacquisition,enteringintoChineselistedcompaniesbywayofjoiningtheprocessofchangingstateassetscreditors’rightsintostockinterests,formingChinese-foreignjointventuresandsoon.Basedthebackgroundofeconomicglobalization,acquisitionofChineseenterprisesbyforeigncapitalhasbecomethemaininternationaldirectinvestmentwaybyforeigncountries.Chineselistedcompaniesaretheirmainobjects.ExampleAgilent'sacquisitionofIBM'sarrayandchargetestassetscombinesIBM'stechnologyandproductknowledge,itslargeinstalledbase,anditsmarketrecognition.TheacquisitionisbeingintegratedintoAgilent'sHachiojiSemiconductorTestDivision.AgilenthasassumedfullresponsibilityforIBM'swideinstalledbaseofFPDmanufacturersinJapan,TaiwanandKorea,aswellasongoingcommitmentsinapplicationsupport,productsupportandfuturerequirements.FPDmanufacturershavelongunderstoodthevalueofarraytesting,suchaspost-processcostsavings,expeditedyieldramp-upandstabilizationoftheproductionprocess.Movingforward,bybuildinguponthefoundationofbothAgilent'sandIBM'stechnologyandexpertise,AgilentexpectstosetanewindustrystandardforFPDarraytestingintermsofabsolutemeasurementsensitivityandspeed.Theyalsoexpecttodelivertocustomersimprovedmanufacturingprocessesatlowercost-of-test,ultimatelyenablingmoreaffordableFPDproducts.Acquisitionisaneffectiveapproachforenterprisestoenterintoforeignmarkets.Soacquisitioncannotonlyenlargetheclientbaseofcompany,butalsomakeitmorecompetitiveforforeignproductcost.Anditcanalsoprovidemoredistributionchannelsofexportmarket.Qlast:AmericantheoryofHRM----internationalboundaries&‘cultures----Hofstedculturedimensions.人力资源引入:(A)Humanresourcemanagementisthetheory,techniques,methods,andtoolsforstudyingtheadjustmentofpeopleandtheirrelationsintheorganization,connectionbetweenworkanditsrelations,matchingthepeopleandworkinordertofullydevelophumanresourcemanagement,tappeople’spotentials,motivatingpeople,promotingtheworkefficienciesandmeetingtheorganizationalobjectives.AndanotherquotefromTomKeenoyisthatHRM’smainpurposeisto“providealegitimatemanagementideologytofacilitatetheintensificationofwork”.Toachievethisobjective,themeaning,historicaldevelopmentandtheoreticalunderpinningsofHRMareoutlined.Globalizationhaspotentialimplicationsforvirtuallyalloftheresearchneedsanddirectionswealreadyhaveidentified.Today'sincreasinglyglobal,competitivemarketplacehasdrivenconsiderablechangesinlabormarkets,andhastransformedthepracticeofHumanResourceManagement.Expandedmultinationaloperationswithinlargecompanies,combinedwithincreasedtechnologyandcommunicationcapability,haveledtovastdiffusionofglobal“bestpractices”inHRM.引出文化差异现象,提出并分析问题(B)HowevertheCoreofCross-CulturalManagementCulturaldifferencesaffecttheefficiencyoforganizationsthroughpeople’sminds,valuesandbehavior.Itisalsohumans(forexample,themanagers)whoimplementcross-culturalmanagement.Aglobalorganizationneedstounderstandcross-culturaldifferencesbothinsideandoutsidetheorganization.Managingglobalboardsandseniorexecutivecommitteesrequiresasophisticatedunderstandingofculturaldifferencesininteractionpatternsandinattitudestowardstime,influence,andproblemsolvingstyles.Generallyspeaking,therearethreeculturaldimensionsdefined:Powerdistance,Uncertaintyavoidance,Inpidualism.AsfarasIknow,themostsignificantinfluenceinculturaldifferenceisthepowerdistance.Itisthedistancebetweenamanagerandsubordinate.Amongmostorientalcorporatecultures,thatisahighpowerdistanceculturethatmanagersmakethedecisionandsuperiorsappealtotheentitledmoreprivileges.Insuchsituation,itisnotberegardsifasubordinateshaveadisagreementwiththeirmanagers.Butinthewest,whentheemployeegotdifferentideas,hewillgotodiscusstheproblemwithhisboss.Conflictandmisunderstandingmustoccuriftwoormoreinterculturesmeetup.Underthissituation,theinternationalmanagersmustpayattentiontotheclashesandbeawareof.Howtoworkthesubordinatestogetherefficientlyandmorecooperativelyisimportanttoo.TheseconddimensionHofstedeindicatedistheuncertaintyavoidancewhichisthelackoftoleranceforriskandtheneedforformalrules.Theyfeelsafeandpridefulwhentheykeepworkinghardattheoneplacesoanexcellentmanagershouldkeephisemployeeawayfromunpredictablerisk.Onantherhandtheemployeewouldliketobeworkedwithingroupsratherthanindependentlycauseofthelessrisk-taking.Butinmostwesterncountries,highjobmobilityoccursinthosecountriessuchasUSA,Denmark,Singapore.Theythinkthejobwhentheychangetheirjobs,moreandbetterjobscanbehunted.Andtheycangetmoreexperiencecausetheylikechallenge.Acompetentmanagershouldpayattentionontherulessettingbetweendifferentuncertaintyavoidance.Themisreadingofthatmayaffecttheinitiativeandtheaspirationofthesubordinates.Thenthereisalsoalargediscrepancyontheinpidualism.Itisaconcernforyourselfasaninpidualasopposedtoconcernforthegroup.Thepriorityofself-concernorgroup-concernvariesfromdifferentcultures.Forexample,mostwesternemployeesliketoworkwiththeirownplanfordefendingtheirinterest.Thatisahighinpidualism.Theyjustsimplyworkintheirownways,followtheirownrules,andachievetheirownobjective.Itisgoodforacompanytogatherasmuchideasastheycanwhenstartinganewprogram.Buthowtomanagetheseinpidualstoreachthegroupgoalshouldbetheawarenessformanagers.Ithinkwhoisgoodatthisshouldbegoodatgrouping,troubleshooting,andcoordinatingskills.Cross-culturalmanagementisafascinatinglycomplexsubject.Crossculturalknowledgeandawarenesscanassistexecutivestoimprovemanagementskills.Moreimportantly,itcanalsohelpbusinessleadersmaketherightstrategicdecisions.TheabovethreedimensionsilluminatedthemostimportantculturaldifferencesthataffectonHRM.Internationalmanagersoughttobeabletoawarenotonlytheculturaldifferencebutalsotheinterculturalcommunication.转贴于免费论文下载中声明:本论文来自免费论文下载中心:200809/81894.asp免费论文下载中心所发布的论文版权归原作者所有,本站仅供大家学习、研究、参考之用,未取得作者授权严禁摘编、篡改、用作商业用途.

而有效沟通的最终目的也就是要使信息准确、清晰、简洁乃至生动地传达下去。

法律、法规主要由国务院和各相关部委颁布,企业所在的省、市相关部门,有时也会颁布在本地区内贯彻实施这些法律、法规的具体办法,这些都应当列入到OPMSIS中来,以便项目管理人员在应用中更加符合本地的实际。

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