印度新议会大厦雕像揭幕,“四狮国徽像”引发争吵

导读今天跟小编一起来了解下印度新议会大厦雕像揭幕,“四狮国徽像”引发争吵的最新情况........

Ajzen的计划行为理论认为行为意图受到三方面因素的影响:态度、主观规范、认知的影响,行为意图对使用行为有直接的作用。

Howdoesaninvestigationofsocial-culturalinfl论文类别:工商管理论文下载-管理理论论文下载上传时间:2008/9/178:40:00论文作者:未知论文版本:简体版繁体版英文版1.Internationalmarketingingeneralisinfluencedbysocio-cultural,background,religiousbeliefsandcustomswhichcannotbeoverviewed.Theculturaldimensionprovidesthechanceandchallengetomarketers.Sotheinvestigationissignificantwhichwillmakethedecisionaccordinglyandmorecorrectly.Withthefollowingwewillintroducethenecessityindetail.Customisthemostimportantfactorinfluencethemarketing.Infact,successfulmarketingpeoplesawthecloseconnectionbetweencustomandcustomers:thewaytoturnpeopleintocustomersistomakeyourproductpartoftheircustomaryactions.Sometimeswholeindustriesarecreatedaroundacustom(Halloweencostumes)andatothertimes,customsarecreatedaroundaproduct(Valentine’sDaycards).Inbothcases,marketerstookadvantagesofthebasichumanneedforritual.Culturesdistinguishthemselvesbytheirrituals,evenwhentheyshareacommonlanguage.Collectingknowledgeaboutlocalcustomisbestdoneupcloseandfirsthand.Getting“ontheground”informationiswellworththecostthatitmayentail.Ifyourfirsttriptoanewcountryisforthepurposeofsellingaproductratherthaninvestingthepotentialtosellone,youmaybedisappointed.Marketershavetolearnhow,why,andwhenthetargetmarketgoesaboutitsbusinessinordertomakeyourproductfit.Anothershouldbetakenintoconsiderislanguage:Mostoftheworld’snationalboundariesaresetalonglinguisticperimeters.Especiallynames,whichareimportantineverylanguageandformarketers,brandnamesareparamount.Arrivinginanewmarketwithagreatnewproductthat’ssaddledwithabadbrandnamecouldspelldisaster.Evenestablishedinternationalcompanieshaveproblemswiththeirnames:SiemensisrarelyspelledcorrectlyanywherebutGermany,andfewpeopleineastAsiacanpronounceNestleproperty,norcanWesternerspronounceHyundai.Investigationofthelanguagewassurelykeyinnamingtheproduct.Also,thehistorycannotbeneglected.Everycountryandculture,whetherit’sasancientasIndiaorasyoungastheCzechRepublic,hasahistorythatwillgreatlyaffectboththemarketandthemarketer.Understandingthathistorywillenableamarketertoapproachthecultureinamoresubtlemanner,anditwillcertainlycauseanadjustmentofschedule.Ontheotherend,aculturethathasbeenmarkedbyindependenceforsometimewillhavefewfearsofforeignoperationsandmayfindthesubtleapproachfartoolacklusterandslow.Marketersmaybringtheirownbusinesstotheprocessandshouldtakecaretoseparatethemselves,atleastemotionally,fromtheirpersonalandculturalhistory.Oftentimes,thisincludesracialprejudicesthataredifficulttoshake,earlierpoliticaldisagreementsthathaveneverbeenfullysettled,ofoldunhealedwarwounds.Moreover,whenenteringtheforeigntherewillbemanyotheraspectsshouldbelearned,suchasreligion,thefamily,theeducationect.Theinvestigationoftheculturedimensionwillprovideinsightsforthemanagers,andthentheywilldealwiththebusinesseasilyandappropriately.Insomecases,itrunsalonggenderlines.Generallyspeaking,theinvestigationofsocia-culturalinfluenceswillbenefitthethemarketing:engageyourknow-howtoincreasesecurity;getimportantdetailstoreachyourmostimportantprospectivecustomers;reduceyourcostsforgoodscreditsandhence:increaseyourprofit.Themanagersneedtoputgreatemphasisontheinvestigation.2.Entrymodel(think2differententrymodel)inadditiontoevaluating2alternativemarketentrymodes.Alsodiscussthefactorsthatinfluenceaffirmschoicebetweenthealternative.Thereareavarietyofkindstoenteranothermarket,thesimplestformofentrystrategyisexporting,andmorecomplexformsincludetrulyglobaloperationswhichmayinvolvejointventures.ThefollowingwillintroducejointventureandFDI,alsocomparethedifferencebetweenthem.JointventuresJointventurescanbedefinedas"anenterpriseinwhichtwoormoreinvestorsshareownershipandcontroloverpropertyrightsandoperation".Jointventuresareamoreextensiveformofparticipationthaneitherexportingorlicensing.Therearefivecommonobjectivesinajointventure:marketentry,risk/rewardsharing,technologysharingandjointproductdevelopment,andconformingtogovernmentregulations.Otherbenefitsincludepoliticalconnectionsanddistributionchannelaccessthatmaydependonrelationships.Thekeyissuestoconsiderinajointventureareownership,control,lengthofagreement,pricing,technologytransfer,localfirmcapabilitiesandresources,andgovernmentintentions.FDI:Foreigndirectinvestment(FDI)isdefinedas“investmentmadetoacquirelastinginterestinenterprisesoperatingoutsideoftheeconomyoftheinvestor.”TheFDIrelationshipconsistsofaparententerpriseandaforeignaffiliatewhichtogetherformatransnationalcorporation.InordertoqualifyasFDItheinvestmentmustaffordtheparententerprisecontroloveritsforeignaffiliate.ForaninvestmenttoqualifyasFDI,physicalcapitalmustbecreatedintheforeigncountry(suchasmanufacturingfacilities,orfactories.)Thisphysicalcapitaliscontrolledbyafirmbasedoutsideofthereceiving,orhostcountry.Foreigndirectinvestmentisconsideredtobeaverystableinvestmentbecauseitinvolvesthecreationofphysicalcapital.FDIisconsideredtobealongterminvestmentbecausephysicalcapitalisnoteasilyliquidated.Comparethetwomodes:ModeJointventuresDirectinvestmentConditionsfavoringthismodeLargeculturalDistanceAssetscannotbefairlypricedHighsalespotentialSomepoliticalriskGovernmentrestrictionsonforeignownershipLocalcompanycanprovideskills,resources,distributionnetwork,brandname,etc,Partners’size,marketpower,andresourcesaresmallcomparedtotheindustryleaders;SmallculturaldistanceAssetscannotbefairlypricedHighsalespotentialLowpoliticalriskAdvantagesOvercomeownershiprestrictionsandculturaldistanceCombinesresourcesof2companiesPotentialforlearningLessinvestmentrequiredSharingofriskandabilityJointfinancialstrengthMaybeonlymeansofentryandThesourceofsupplyforathirdcountry.GreaterknowledgeoflocalmarketCanbetterapplyspecializedskilledCanbeviewedasaninsiderDisadvantagesDifficulttomanageDilutionofcontrolGreaterriskthanexportinga&licensingMaybeimpossibletorecovercapitalDisagreementonthirdpartymarketstoserveHigherriskRequiresmoreresourcesandcommitmentMaybedifficulttomanagethelocalresourcesCase:QuebecorWorldwillprint20billiondirectorypagesayearinMexico,equaltomorethan75percentoftheMexicandirectorymarket.Whichmakeuseofthefollowingtwopoints:FDIbyacquisition;FDIwillincreasecapacity,andcompetitivenessoftarget.Differentmodesofentrymaybemoreappropriateunderdifferentcircumstances,andthemodeofentryisanimportantfactorinthesuccessoftheproject.Ifthepartnerscarefullymapoutinadvancewhattheyexpecttoachieveandhow,thenmanyproblemscanbeovercome.3.Acquisition(largeconsumermanufacture):Introduction:Undertheconditionofmodernenterprisesystemandmarketeconomy,“acquisition”oftenreferstoalegalactforanenterprisetoacquirethecontrolpowerandmanagingpowerofanotherenterprisethroughacertainchannel.Whichisalsoknownasatakeover,isthebuyingofonecompany(the‘target’)byanother.Anacquisitionmaybefriendlyorhostile.Intheformercase,thecompaniescooperateinnegotiations;inthelattercase,thetakeovertargetisunwillingtobeboughtorthetarget'sboardhasnopriorknowledgeoftheoffer.免费论文下载中Typesofacquisition:Thebuyerbuystheshares,andthereforecontrolsthetargetcompanybeingpurchased.Ownershipcontrolofthecompanyinturnconveyseffectivecontrolovertheassetsofthecompany,butsincethecompanyisacquiredasagoingbusiness;suchtransactioncarriesalloftheliabilitiesaccruedbythatbusinessoveritspastandalloftherisksthatcompanyfacesinitscommercialenvironment.Thebuyerbuystheassetsofthetargetcompany.Thecashthetargetreceivesfromthesell-offispaidbacktoitsshareholders.Suchtransactionleavesthetargetcompanyasanemptyshell.Abuyeroftenstructuresthetransactionasanassetpurchaseto"cherry-pick"theassets.Adisadvantageofthisstructureisthetaxthatmanyjurisdictions.Recently,alongwiththedevelopmentoftheeconomic,thescaleoftheacquisitionbecomesoverwhelmingandthephenomenonmorenormal.ThemainwaysofacquisitionofChineselistedcompaniesbyforeigncapitalarethefollowing:acquisitionbyagreement,acquisitionbyoffer,increasingtoissueBsharetocertainpeople,indirectacquisition,enteringintoChineselistedcompaniesbywayofjoiningtheprocessofchangingstateassetscreditors’rightsintostockinterests,formingChinese-foreignjointventuresandsoon.Basedthebackgroundofeconomicglobalization,acquisitionofChineseenterprisesbyforeigncapitalhasbecomethemaininternationaldirectinvestmentwaybyforeigncountries.Chineselistedcompaniesaretheirmainobjects.ExampleAgilent'sacquisitionofIBM'sarrayandchargetestassetscombinesIBM'stechnologyandproductknowledge,itslargeinstalledbase,anditsmarketrecognition.TheacquisitionisbeingintegratedintoAgilent'sHachiojiSemiconductorTestDivision.AgilenthasassumedfullresponsibilityforIBM'swideinstalledbaseofFPDmanufacturersinJapan,TaiwanandKorea,aswellasongoingcommitmentsinapplicationsupport,productsupportandfuturerequirements.FPDmanufacturershavelongunderstoodthevalueofarraytesting,suchaspost-processcostsavings,expeditedyieldramp-upandstabilizationoftheproductionprocess.Movingforward,bybuildinguponthefoundationofbothAgilent'sandIBM'stechnologyandexpertise,AgilentexpectstosetanewindustrystandardforFPDarraytestingintermsofabsolutemeasurementsensitivityandspeed.Theyalsoexpecttodelivertocustomersimprovedmanufacturingprocessesatlowercost-of-test,ultimatelyenablingmoreaffordableFPDproducts.Acquisitionisaneffectiveapproachforenterprisestoenterintoforeignmarkets.Soacquisitioncannotonlyenlargetheclientbaseofcompany,butalsomakeitmorecompetitiveforforeignproductcost.Anditcanalsoprovidemoredistributionchannelsofexportmarket.Qlast:AmericantheoryofHRM----internationalboundaries&‘cultures----Hofstedculturedimensions.人力资源引入:(A)Humanresourcemanagementisthetheory,techniques,methods,andtoolsforstudyingtheadjustmentofpeopleandtheirrelationsintheorganization,connectionbetweenworkanditsrelations,matchingthepeopleandworkinordertofullydevelophumanresourcemanagement,tappeople’spotentials,motivatingpeople,promotingtheworkefficienciesandmeetingtheorganizationalobjectives.AndanotherquotefromTomKeenoyisthatHRM’smainpurposeisto“providealegitimatemanagementideologytofacilitatetheintensificationofwork”.Toachievethisobjective,themeaning,historicaldevelopmentandtheoreticalunderpinningsofHRMareoutlined.Globalizationhaspotentialimplicationsforvirtuallyalloftheresearchneedsanddirectionswealreadyhaveidentified.Today'sincreasinglyglobal,competitivemarketplacehasdrivenconsiderablechangesinlabormarkets,andhastransformedthepracticeofHumanResourceManagement.Expandedmultinationaloperationswithinlargecompanies,combinedwithincreasedtechnologyandcommunicationcapability,haveledtovastdiffusionofglobal“bestpractices”inHRM.引出文化差异现象,提出并分析问题(B)HowevertheCoreofCross-CulturalManagementCulturaldifferencesaffecttheefficiencyoforganizationsthroughpeople’sminds,valuesandbehavior.Itisalsohumans(forexample,themanagers)whoimplementcross-culturalmanagement.Aglobalorganizationneedstounderstandcross-culturaldifferencesbothinsideandoutsidetheorganization.Managingglobalboardsandseniorexecutivecommitteesrequiresasophisticatedunderstandingofculturaldifferencesininteractionpatternsandinattitudestowardstime,influence,andproblemsolvingstyles.Generallyspeaking,therearethreeculturaldimensionsdefined:Powerdistance,Uncertaintyavoidance,Inpidualism.AsfarasIknow,themostsignificantinfluenceinculturaldifferenceisthepowerdistance.Itisthedistancebetweenamanagerandsubordinate.Amongmostorientalcorporatecultures,thatisahighpowerdistanceculturethatmanagersmakethedecisionandsuperiorsappealtotheentitledmoreprivileges.Insuchsituation,itisnotberegardsifasubordinateshaveadisagreementwiththeirmanagers.Butinthewest,whentheemployeegotdifferentideas,hewillgotodiscusstheproblemwithhisboss.Conflictandmisunderstandingmustoccuriftwoormoreinterculturesmeetup.Underthissituation,theinternationalmanagersmustpayattentiontotheclashesandbeawareof.Howtoworkthesubordinatestogetherefficientlyandmorecooperativelyisimportanttoo.TheseconddimensionHofstedeindicatedistheuncertaintyavoidancewhichisthelackoftoleranceforriskandtheneedforformalrules.Theyfeelsafeandpridefulwhentheykeepworkinghardattheoneplacesoanexcellentmanagershouldkeephisemployeeawayfromunpredictablerisk.Onantherhandtheemployeewouldliketobeworkedwithingroupsratherthanindependentlycauseofthelessrisk-taking.Butinmostwesterncountries,highjobmobilityoccursinthosecountriessuchasUSA,Denmark,Singapore.Theythinkthejobwhentheychangetheirjobs,moreandbetterjobscanbehunted.Andtheycangetmoreexperiencecausetheylikechallenge.Acompetentmanagershouldpayattentionontherulessettingbetweendifferentuncertaintyavoidance.Themisreadingofthatmayaffecttheinitiativeandtheaspirationofthesubordinates.Thenthereisalsoalargediscrepancyontheinpidualism.Itisaconcernforyourselfasaninpidualasopposedtoconcernforthegroup.Thepriorityofself-concernorgroup-concernvariesfromdifferentcultures.Forexample,mostwesternemployeesliketoworkwiththeirownplanfordefendingtheirinterest.Thatisahighinpidualism.Theyjustsimplyworkintheirownways,followtheirownrules,andachievetheirownobjective.Itisgoodforacompanytogatherasmuchideasastheycanwhenstartinganewprogram.Buthowtomanagetheseinpidualstoreachthegroupgoalshouldbetheawarenessformanagers.Ithinkwhoisgoodatthisshouldbegoodatgrouping,troubleshooting,andcoordinatingskills.Cross-culturalmanagementisafascinatinglycomplexsubject.Crossculturalknowledgeandawarenesscanassistexecutivestoimprovemanagementskills.Moreimportantly,itcanalsohelpbusinessleadersmaketherightstrategicdecisions.TheabovethreedimensionsilluminatedthemostimportantculturaldifferencesthataffectonHRM.Internationalmanagersoughttobeabletoawarenotonlytheculturaldifferencebutalsotheinterculturalcommunication.转贴于免费论文下载中声明:本论文来自免费论文下载中心:200809/81894.asp免费论文下载中心所发布的论文版权归原作者所有,本站仅供大家学习、研究、参考之用,未取得作者授权严禁摘编、篡改、用作商业用途.

以“国务院办公厅关于促进房地产市场健康发展的若干意见”为代表的新一轮房产救市政策的推出放宽了二套自住房贷款限制,加大对中低价位、中小套型普通商品房建设项目的信贷支持、取消城市房地产税等。

道家思想与组织管理论文类别:工商管理论文下载-管理理论论文下载上传时间:2009/7/2915:08:00论文作者:李晓春论文版本:简体版繁体版英文版摘要:管理“无常理”,组织在变化,已有的管理方式也须变化?中国传统文化中的道家思想,为组织管理走向更高层次提供了丰富的材料,推行“无为而治”将使组织管理达臻至高境界?��关键词:无为而治;上善若水;自化;和谐;创造道家思想是在中国传统文化中占有重要地位的哲学思想流派,其学说表述严谨,是逻辑性极强的理论体系,它虽然没有在中国正统文化体系中占据主体地位,但却对人们的思想产生着巨大的影响?今天我们所处的时代,虽然已大异于老庄时期,但道家思想的精华对很多问题仍具教益?而仅从管理角度看道家思想,就可以发掘出不少颇具现代感的理念,也可说是“事少而功多”的管理之道?1道家的管理之道��道家的思想可谓博大精深,从中可发掘出的管理思想涉及管理原则?管理策略?管理方法?管理环境?管理者素质等多方面,而其所涉的各方面,虽然各有表述,最终却可以极其简约的文字来表达:“无为而治”?“上善若水”?1.1“无为而治”――管理的至高境界��“无为”是道家学说中最为核心的思想?司马迁称:“道家无为,又曰无不为,其实易行,其辞难知?其术以虚无为本,以因循为用?无成势,无常形,故能究万物之情?不为物先,不为物后,故能为万物主?有法无法,因时为业;有度无度,因物与合?”可以看出,道家的无为绝非无所为,消极应对只是其表象,以无为而治达成无不为的至高境界,才是其真正的内核?仔细研究无为思想,可从中发现颇具现代管理色彩的理念雏形?��(1)循规律而不止于规律?��《老子》42章中有言:“道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物?万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和?”老子进而又在其著述中指出:“道者万物之奥?”其阴阳之说旨在说明万物都有产生发展的普遍规律?既然有规律存在,那么我们在处事时就必须遵循规律,“无为”乃是“辅万物之自然”,实质在于顺应规律?而遵循规律并不等于抱着现成规律停步不前,因为规律本身也不是一种常态,要明白“无成势,无常形”才能“究万物之情”?��道家的这一思想恰向我们揭示了这样的管理理念:管理存在普遍规律,组织的管理应该重视运用规律,只有更多掌握和运用规律,才能更好地达成组织目标?但管理又不存在普遍适用的方法,组织只有结合自身情况,追求管理的突破和创新,才能更接近真正的管理规律?��(2)“无为而无不为”?��无为在老子那里更多的是“不谋而谋”,他所说的“为学日益,为道日损,损之又损,以至于无为”?“无为而无不为”,清楚地表明他欲以看似消极的无为谋积极的“无不为”思想?这一点揭示了组织管理的至高境界:最好的管理不是纪律森严,迫使人人敬畏遵从?毫不逾矩;最好的管理者也绝非事无巨细?事必躬亲,处处严厉苛责,管理之道在于谋求“万物自化,天下自正”的局面?因此,高明的管理是不见管理,高明的管理者必不见其人,所谓“无为而无不为”正是此意?1.2“上善若水”――管理的理想模式��道家对水有极高的评价:“上善若水,水善利万物而不争,处众人之所恶,故几近于道?”在《老子》中的许多论述,可以看出道家将水视为接近万物之奥――道的缘由,也正是这些论述,包含着管理的理想模式?��“天下莫柔弱于水,而攻坚强者莫之能胜,以其无以易之”;“柔弱胜刚强”――管理虽然凭借一定的权力,但权力的重点绝对不是“力”,管理的重心在“理”而不在“管”上,管理者及组织靠强制力是很难达臻管理的至高境界的?相反,以柔弱似水的模式进行组织的管理,即以水的柔软性适应一切环境,以水的平静谦和对待组织成员,以水的宽广包容组织成员,以水的稳定性面对一切危机干扰,又象水一般蕴藏着巨大的能量,始终推动组织向上发展,这样的管理则“几近于道也”?免费论文下载中2无为而治的必备条件��如前所述,无为而治?水式管理属于管理的理想境界和模式,既为理想,就非轻易可达成,无论对组织还是管理者而言,都必须具备相应的条件?��(1)素质要求?无为而治首先对管理者提出了极高的素质要求,它不仅需要管理者深谙管理之道,能把握组织发展的大局,还必须有宽广的气度,可为他人营造一片广阔的天空?在人是“不自见?不自是?不自伐?不自矜”,于事是“不为物先,不为物后”?这实在是挑战人类自身的尺度,地位如管理者,要不自我表现?自我肯定?自我表扬?自认为了不起已经很不容易了,再要把握好不为物先,不为物后的尺度,实在是难之又难?但也惟有如此,才能保证无为而无不为的至高境界?��无为而治对组织成员同样有极高的要求?若管理者以“我无为,而民自化”的指导思想推行无为而治,而组织成员却因此而无所适从,或是因“不见管理”而自我放纵?失之以责,必将导致无为而治的失败,并使组织遭受巨大损失?��(2)环境要求?《老子》中有言:“清净为天下正”,纷乱浮躁的组织环境不可能孕育出无为而治的境界,也不可能让柔弱似水的管理模式在组织中展开?故而无为而治对于组织的要求很明确:一个安全而足够大的创造空间,这样的组织,既不会因为“无为”而使组织瘫痪,也不会因为“柔弱”而使管理者甚至组织陷于险境?��基于上述要求,无为而治实际上只能在组织的高层(人员素质相对较高,环境相对适宜)或高层次组织中方能推行?3无为而治的推行��计划?组织?指挥?控制?协调是广义上的组织管理职能,在组织高层或高层次组织中推行无为而治,其目标追求与广义的组织管理职能并无二致,但无为而治要求管理者的重心更趋向于组织内部,以战胜自己而使自己成为强者?��(1)教育而至自化?��将硬性的制度以水的柔性浸润每一位组织成员,使组织的需要?目标内化成为组织成员的共同愿景和追求,使组织的管理成为成员的自觉行为,使组织的发展成为成员发展的舞台?这就是教育而至自化的过程,这个过程建立在对组织成员的人格?人性?人生关怀基础上,以管理者的知人之智和自知之明为依托,在潜移默化中逐渐完成?每一个组织成员在整个教育过程中,得到所需知识和技能的培训,学会顺应组织发展规律,以最符合要求的态度对待任务,更受到直指内心的文化熏陶,对组织产生情感上的认同?“自化”层次的组织成员是无为而治的人力资源?��(2)调节而至和谐?��在道家看来,世界上任何事物都是由阴阳两方面构成的,大至天地自然,小至生活个体,无不如此?对管理者而言,调整组织中的各种关系,减少负面文化对组织的影响;调节组织成员的心理状态,引导各成员产生积极的情感体验,使组织“在相生相克中相辅相成”直至组织的和谐统一,是至关重要的?��(3)激励而生创造?��激励其实是无为的反题,要激励必“有为”,但运用激励机制促使组织成员确立积极?稳定?持久的追求,恰又符合无为而治对组织成员的素质要求?同时,激励在推行无为而治的组织中,更多的是一种包容?这种以包容体现的激励,能营造出宽松的环境,使积蓄着力量的组织成员迸发出无穷的创造力?这样,组织也将因此获得持久发展的原动力?��组织的管理由“见物不见人”的简单做法,发展到严格的制度化?规范化管理方式,应该继续走向柔化管理,凸显对人的关怀,以众人的管理来成就组织的管理?中国传统文化中的道家思想,为此提供了极为丰富的材料?“无为而治”将真正成为组织管理的至高境界?免费论文下载中声明:本论文来自免费论文下载中心:200907/81777.asp免费论文下载中心所发布的论文版权归原作者所有,本站仅供大家学习、研究、参考之用,未取得作者授权严禁摘编、篡改、用作商业用途.

而“高效发电技术装备、新型农业装备、高附加值船舶及配套”项目中部六省都没有列入规划。

3.山东半岛蓝色经济区海洋文化产业发展的机遇(Opportunities)(1)国家政策的扶持。

(3)组织形式由职能型转为学习型。

(二)维护员工权益的责任承担不够目前部分中小民营企业不与员工签订劳动用工合同,劳资纠纷大幅增长;生产安全及员工职业健康问题突出,工伤、死亡事件时有发生;违法延长工时现象在加工型生产企业普遍存在;千方百计回避职工参保、妇女权益保护等问题。

同时人力资源部得出主管未能有效配合人力资源部的工作,即未完成他的一部分职责。

最新文章